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Table 1 Grading of recommendations and evidence.

From: Recommendations on the use of recombinant activated factor VII as an adjunctive treatment for massive bleeding – a European perspective

Grading of recommendations
A Supported by at least two level I investigations
B Supported by one level I investigation
C Supported by level II investigations only
D Supported by at least one level III investigation
E Supported by level IV and V evidence
Grading of evidence
I Large randomized trials with clear-cut results; low risk of false-positive (alpha) error or false-negative (beta) error
II Small randomized trials with uncertain results; moderate-to-high risk of false-positive (alpha) error and/or false-negative (beta) error
III Nonrandomized, contemporaneous controls
IV Nonrandomized, historical controls and expert opinion
V Case series, uncontrolled studies, and expert opinion