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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of modified intention-to-treat patients grouped as defined per bacteriologic documentation (visit 2)

From: Empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy of nosocomial pneumonia in the intensive care unit: a prospective observational study

  Group I (n = 113, 46.3%) Group II (n = 14, 5.7%) Group III (n = 38, 15.6%) Group IV (n = 56, 23.0%) Group V (n = 23, 9.4%) Overall (n = 244, 100%)
Gender (%)       
   Male 75.2 78.6 68.4 78.6 73.9 75.0
   Female 24.8 21.4 31.6 21.4 26.1 25.0
Age (years)       
   Mean (standard deviation) 54.8 (16.6) 54.9 (22.9) 55.5 (20.1) 52.8 (18.7) 51.3 (22.4) 54.1 (18.5)
Diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia (%)       
   Early onset 8.0 - 7.9 14.3 13.0 9.4
   Late onset 92.0 100 92.1 85.7 87.0 90.6
Prior therapy (%)       
   Antibiotics 86.7 85.7 76.3 64.3 78.3 79.1
   Steroids 19.5 21.4 26.3 21.4 21.7 21.3
Vital signs (%)       
   Fever (>38.2°C) 50.4 42.9 71.1 55.4 39.1 53.3
   Tachypnea (>20 cycles/minute) 36.6 35.7 34.2 39.3 40.9 37.2
   Systolic hypotension (<100 mmHg) 37.2 57.1 47.4 33.9 43.5 39.8
   Tachycardia (>110 beats/minute) 30.4 35.7 23.7 28.6 30.4 29.2
Pulmonary function (%)       
   PaO2/FiO2 < 250 mmHga 85.2 81.8 89.3 83.0 50.0 81.5
Other therapies (%)       
   Mechanical ventilationb 76.1 85.7 92.1 87.3 95.5 83.5
   Vasoactive drugs 45.5 50.0 45.9 33.9 54.5 44.0
APACHE II score       
   Mean (standard deviation) 17.4 (7.0) 17.6 (9.0) 17.3 (8.3) 16.0 (6.0) 18.3 (7.8) 17.2 (7.2)
   0–8 (%) 8.0 14.3 15.8 8.9 4.3 9.4
   9–16 (%) 42.5 28.6 31.6 42.9 34.8 39.3
   17–24 (%) 33.6 28.6 39.5 42.9 43.5 37.3
   >24 (%) 15.9 28.6 13.2 5.4 17.4 13.9
Concomitant diseases (%)       
   Any 67.3 64.3 47.4 58.9 60.9 61.5
   Cardiovascular disease 25.7 42.9 21.1 21.4 30.4 25.4
   Chronic respiratory disease 25.7 21.4 10.5 17.9 21.7 20.9
   Liver disease 8.0 7.1 5.3 7.1 - 6.6
   Renal dysfunction 5.3 7.1 2.6 3.6 - 4.1
   Active neoplasia 4.4 14.3 2.6 8.9 17.4 7.0
  1. Group I, patients with an unknown aetiology and unmodified therapy; Group II, patients with resistant organisms, who had unmodified therapy; Group III, patients with susceptible organisms, who had unmodified therapy; Group IV, patients who had susceptible organisms and whose therapy was modified accordingly; and Group V, patients who initially received inadequate antibiotic therapy, which was later modified on the basis of cultures. APACHE, Acute Physiology, Age, and Chronic Health Evaluation. aChi-square test, P < 0.01. bChi-square test, P = 0.052.