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Table 5 Association of Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage Kidney (RIFLE) criteria with mortality

From: RIFLE criteria for acute kidney injury are associated with hospital mortality in critically ill patients: a cohort analysis

  Hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) P
Panel A: association of AKI, defined by meeting any RIFLE criteria, with mortality   
AKI (reference no AKI) 1.7 (1.28–2.13) < 0.001
SOFAnonrenal score (per point) 1.1 (1.10–1.15) < 0.001
Age (per 10 years) 1.1 (1.07–1.18) < 0.001
Sex (female) 0.9 (0.78–1.07) 0.252
Race (reference white)   0.528
   Black 1.1 (0.88–1.45) 0.324
   Other 0.8 (0.41–1.68) 0.608
Medical admission (reference surgical admission) 2.9 (2.44–3.40) < 0.001
Main reason for admission (reference cardiovascular disease)   < 0.001
   Trauma 0.9 (0.66–1.09) 0.196
   Neurological disease 1.3 (1.03–1.52) 0.026
   Pulmonary disease, infection 0.8 (0.65–1.03) 0.087
   Gastrointestinal disease 0.5 (0.21–1.25) 0.140
   Malignancy 0.2 (0.04–0.63) 0.009
   Other 0.4 (0.22–0.62) < 0.001
Panel B: association of maximum RIFLE class with mortality   
RIFLEmax (reference no AKI)   < 0.001
   Risk 1.0 (0.68–1.56) 0.896
   Injury 1.4 (1.02–1.88) 0.037
   Failure 2.7 (2.03–3.55) < 0.001
SOFAnonrenal score (per point) 1.1 (1.10–1.14) < 0.001
Age (per 10 years) 1.1 (1.08–1.20) < 0.001
Sex (female) 0.9 (0.76–1.06) 0.190
Race (reference white)   0.673
   Black 1.1 (0.87–1.45) 0.389
   Other 0.9 (0.44–1.97) 0.844
Medical admission (reference surgical admission) 2.7 (2.27–3.21) < 0.001
Main reason for admission (reference cardiovascular disease)   < 0.001
   Trauma 0.9 (0.69–1.18) 0.463
   Neurological disease 1.3 (1.06–1.60) 0.011
   Pulmonary disease, infection 0.8 (0.66–1.07) 0.154
   Gastrointestinal disease 0.6 (0.24–1.41) 0.230
   Malignancy 0.2 (0.04–0.69) 0.013
   Other 0.3 (0.20–0.60 < 0.001
  1. Covariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. AKI, acute kidney injury, patients meeting at least one of the RIFLE criteria; RIFLEmax, maximum RIFLE class; SOFAnonrenal, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score without points for kidney failure, determined on data from the first 24 hours of admission.
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