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Table 1 Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage Kidney (RIFLE) classification

From: RIFLE criteria for acute kidney injury are associated with hospital mortality in critically ill patients: a cohort analysis

Class Glomerular filtration rate criteria Urine output criteria
Risk Serum creatinine × 1.5 < 0.5 ml/kg/hour × 6 hours
Injury Serum creatinine × 2 < 0.5 ml/kg/hour × 12 hours
Failure Serum creatinine × 3, or serum creatinine ≥ 4 mg/dl with an acute rise > 0.5 mg/dl < 0.3 ml/kg/hour × 24 hours, or anuria × 12 hours
Loss Persistent acute renal failure = complete loss of kidney function > 4 weeks
End-stage kidney disease End-stage kidney disease > 3 months
  1. For conversion of creatinine expressed in conventional units to SI units, multiply by 88.4. RIFLE class is determined based on the worst of either glomerular filtration criteria or urine output criteria. Glomerular filtration criteria are calculated as an increase of serum creatinine above the baseline serum creatinine level. Acute kidney injury should be both abrupt (within 1–7 days) and sustained (more than 24 hours). When the baseline serum creatinine is not known and patients are without a history of chronic kidney insufficiency, it is recommend to calculate a baseline serum creatinine using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation for assessment of kidney function, assuming a glomerular filtration rate of 75 ml/min/1.73 m2. When the baseline serum creatinine is elevated, an abrupt rise of at least 0.5 mg/dl to more than 4 mg/dl is all that is required to achieve class Failure.