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Table 1 Complications of acute renal failure

From: Patients with ischaemic, mixed and nephrotoxic acute tubular necrosis in the intensive care unit – a homogeneous population?

Complication Details/comments
Presence of coma Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤8 without sedative drugs
Bleeding Presence of active bleeding with decrease in haematocrit
Shock Need for vasoactive drugs for blood pressure maintenance
Hypertension systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure >90 mmHg
Oliguria Diuresis <20 ml/hour or <400 ml/day
Hypervolaemia Oedema plus hypertension and/or left ventricular failure and/or acute pulmonary oedema
Hyperkalaemia Serum potassium >5.5 mEq/l on at least two consecutive measurements
Hyponatraemia Serum sodium <130 mEq/l on at least two consecutive measurements
Metabolic acidosis Blood pH <7.20 and/or serum bicarbonate <20 mEq/l on at least two consecutives measurements
Infection developing after the diagnosis of acute tubular necrosis White blood cell count >15,000/mm3 or <4,000/mm3 (in the absence of haematological disease), axillary temperature ≥37.8°C or <36°C and heart rate >90 beats/minute, in the presence of an infectious site demonstrated by radiography, urinalysis, cerebrospinal fluid examination, ultrasound, or positive cultures