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Table 3 Summary of long-term complications comparing percutaneous dilatational and surgical tracheostomy in critically ill patients

From: Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy versus surgical tracheostomy in critically ill patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Proportion available for long-term follow-up (%) Duration of follow-up Reported complications
  ST PDT   Complication ST (%) PDT (%)
Hazard [30] 8/24 (33) 11/22 (50) 1.5–3 months Delayed closure 3 (38) 0 (0)
     Tracheal stenosis 5 (63) 2 (18)
     Cosmetic deformity 2 (25) 1 (9)
Gysin [29] 20/35 (57) 10/35 (29) 3 months Delayed closure 2 (10) 1 (10)
     Tracheal cartilage lesion 1 (5) 0 (0)
     Unesthetic scar 8 (40) 2 (20)
Raine [35] 26/50 (52) 24/50 (48) 4 months Tracheal stenosis 11 (46) 7 (27)
     Scar requiring surgical revision 5 (21) 2 (8)
Heikkinen [31] 11/56 (20) 11/56 (20) 18 months Delayed closure 1 0
     Airway symptomsa 2 2
     Dysphagia 1 0
Wu [38] 12/42 (29) 15/41 (37) 2–4 years Tracheal malacia 1 (8) 0 (0)
Melloni [33] 13/25 (52) 15/25 (60) 6 months Tracheal malacia 0 (0) 1 (7)
     Tracheal stenosis 0 (0) 1 (7)
Antonelli [25] 13/72 (18) 18/67 (27) 12 months Delayed closure 7 (54) 7 (39)
     Airway symptomsa 6 (46) 5 (28)
     Tracheal stenosis 2 (11) 1 (6)
     Need for stomaplasty 3 (16) 1 (6)
Silvester [39] 42/100 (42) 29/100 (29) 20 months Airway symptomsa 10 (24) 12 (41)
     Stridor 2 (5) 0 (0)
     Vocal cord paralysis 1 (2) 0 (0)
     Unesthetic scar 2 (5) 0 (0)
  1. aAirway symptoms included hoarseness, feeling of a lump in the throat, cough, dyspnea, or subjective phonetic or respiratory problems. PDT, percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy; ST, surgical tracheostomy.