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Table 1 Consensus definitions of intraabdominal hypertension, and abdominal compartment syndrome (primary, secondary and recurrent) according to WSACS

From: Decompressive laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome – a critical analysis

Term Definition
IAH IAH is defined by a sustained increase in IAP of 12 mmHg or more, recorded by a minimum of three standardized measurements conducted 4 to 6 hours apart, with or without an APP <60 mmHg
ACS ACS is defined as a sustained increase in IAP of 20 mmHg or more with or without APP <60 AND single or multiple organ system failure that was not previously present
Primary ACS ACS caused by:
  A condition associated with injury or disease in the abdomino-pelvic region that frequently requires early surgical or angioradiological intervention, OR
  A condition that develops following abdominal surgery (such as abdominal organ injuries that require surgical repair or damage control surgery, secondary peritonitis, bleeding pelvic fractures or other cause of massive retroperitoneal haematoma, liver transplantation)
Secondary ACS ACS caused by conditions that do not originate from the abdomen (such as sepsis and capillary leak, major burns, and other conditions requiring massive fluid resuscitation), yet result in the signs and symptoms commonly associated with primary ACS
Recurrent ACS ACS caused by a condition in which it develops following prophylactic or therapeutic surgical or medical treatment of primary or secondary ACS (e.g., persistence of ACS after DL or development of a new ACS episode following definitive closure of the abdominal wall after the previous utilization of a temporary abdominal wall closure)
  1. ACS, abdominal compartment syndrome; APP, abdominal perfusion pressure; DL, decompressive laparotomy; IAH, intraabdominal hypertension; WSACS, World Society of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome.