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Table 1 Characteristics and outcomes of matched cases and controls (patients infected and non-infected with A. baumannii)

From: Attributable mortality of Acinetobacter baumannii infections in critically ill patients: a systematic review of matched cohort and case-control studies

Reference Site of infection; patients and setting Cases Controls Matching of controls to cases Mortality      Length of ICU stay (days)
      Cases Controls p Attributable mortality (%) Cases Controls p
[14] Bacteremia; medical, surgical, burn, and cardiac surgery ICUs of a hospital in Belgium 45 patients with Ab bacteremia 90 patients without bacteremia (excluding coagulase-negative Staphylococci) (1) APACHE II score; (2) primary diagnosis of ICU admission; (3) LOS in the ICU at least as long as that of the case prior to isolation of Ab Hospital: 19/45 (42.2%) Hospital: 31/90 (34.4%) 0.378 7.8 (95% CI - 9.7 to 25.3) Mean 28, SD 19.9, median 25, IQR 16–34 Mean 23, SD 20.2, median 20, IQR 8–31 0.043
      ICU: 14/45 (31.3%) ICU: 19/90 (21.3%) 0.203 10    
[18] Bloodstream infection; burn ICU in Germany 29 patients with nosocomial Ab bloodstream infection 58 matched controls without Ab BSI (1) Date of admission; (2) age; (3) LOS in the ICU at least as long as that of the case before isolation of Ab; (4) same unit Hospital: 9/29 (31%) Hospital: 8/58 (14%) 0.056 17 Mean 50, SD 27 Mean 30, SD 23 NR
[11] Microbiologically documented VAP; 4 Spanish ICUs 60 patients with VAP due to Ab 60 patients with any documented non-Ab infection or no infection at all (1) Equal or longer duration of stay in ICU before pneumonia; (2) APACHE II score; (3) primary diagnosis of ICU admission ICU: 24/60 (40%) ICU: 17/60 (28.3%) 0.17 11.7 Mean 35.3, SD 23.8 Mean 36.6, SD 35.7 NS
[15] Nosocomial outbreak of resistant Ab; MICU in USA 14 patients with Ab nosocomial pneumonia and/or bloodstream infection 29 patients mechanically ventilated for at least 7 days without developing Ab infection or colonization (1) Date of admission; (2) mechanical ventilation in the MICU for ≥ 1 week Hospital: 6/14 (43%) Hospital: 11/29 (32%) 0.9 11 NR NR NR
[21] Acquisition of Ab in critically ill patients in ICU; medical and surgical ICU in Spain 75 patients (48 infected, 27 colonized) with Ab isolation 75 patients without any Ab isolation (1) Age; (2) sex; (3) APACHE II; (4) date of admission; (5) primary diagnosis of ICU admission; (6) LOS in the ICU at least as long as that of the case before isolation of Ab; (7) Mechanical ventilation for >24 h ICU: 28/48 (58%) ICU: 7/48 (15%) < 0.001 43 (95% CI 34–52) Mean 30.1, SD 27.2, median 23, IQR 11.5–37 Mean 15.5, SD 19.3, median 10, IQR 7.5–15 < 0.001
[20] Nosocomial acquisition of MDR Ab; MICU in France 40 patients (13 infected and 27 colonized) with Ab 40 patients non-infected and non-colonized with Ab (1) APACHE II score; (2) LOS in the ICU at least as long as that of the case before isolation of Ab; (3) age; (4) date of admission Hospital: 7/13 (53.8%) Hospital: 4/13 (30.8%) 0.23 23 Mean 23.8, SD 9.6 NR NR
[17] Colonization or infection with (89% MDR) Ab; trauma centre in USA. Most patients were in ICUs 102 patients (33 infected, 69 colonized) with Ab 102 controls without Ab (1) Primary diagnosis (computerized codes); (2) same period Hospital: 14/33 (42%) NR NA NA Mean 51.33, SD 6.79 Mean 19.00, SD 5.90 < 0.001
  1. Ab, Acinetobacter baumannii; APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; CI, confidence interval; ICU, intensive care unit;
  2. IQR, interquartile range; LOS, length of stay; MDR, multidrug resistant; MICU, medical ICU; NA, non-applicable; NR, not reported; NS, non-significant; VAP, ventilator-associated pneumonia.