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Table 1 Recruited patients

From: Bronchoalveolar lavage cytological alveolar damage in patients with severe pneumonia

Group Patients with community-acquired pneumonia Patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (n = 57)
  With pneumonia With pneumonia Without pneumoniac
Patients, n (%) 15 39 (68.4%) 18 (31.6%)
Age, years (mean ± SD) 69.0 ± 17.4 65.3 ± 15.9 62.6 ± 19.7
Male gender n (%) 8 (53.3%) 26 (66.7%) 9 (50%)
Co-morbidities, n 8 25 10
   Cardiac failure 0 8 2
   Neoplastic disease 2 5 0
   AIDS 2 2 1
   Chronic respiratory failure 2 2 1
   Cirrhosis 2 8 6
Ventilation, days before bronchoalveolar lavagea (median (IQR)) 1 (0–2) 8 (3–15) 3 (0–10.5)
Length of stay in ICU (median (IQR)) 4.5 (1.0–15.7) 18 (10.7–34.0) 18 (7.5–30.2)
Mortality, n (%) 12 (80%) 21 (53.8%) 10 (55.6%)
SAPS II at admission (mean ± SD) 74.45 ± 21.50 64.36 ± 20.60 60.83 ± 21.41
SAPS II at inclusion (mean ± SD) - 53.0 ± 19.4 66.0 ± 26.1
Vasoactive drugs (yes/no) 12/3 29/10 10/8
Number of failing organsb (median (IQR)) 2 (2–3) 3 (1–3) 2 (1–3)
   None 0 7 2
   1 2 6 5
   2 8 6 3
   3 4 11 5
   4 1 7 1
   5 0 1 2
   6 0 1 0
Thoracic radiograph    
   Bilateral opacities, n (%) 7 (46.7%) 20 (51.3%) 11 (61.1%)
   Multilobar involvement, n (%) 11 (73.3%) 21 (53.8%) 13 (72.2%)
Clinical variables (mean ± SD)    
   MAP, mmHg 68.11 ± 19.27 64.6 ± 16.6 61.55 ± 19.94
   GCS before sedation 11.2 ± 5.0 9.85 ± 5.24 11.8 ± 4.9
   GCS > 9 10 22 13
   PaO2/FiO2, mmHg 177.91 ± 88.43 190.0 ± 63.3 195.27 ± 86.20
   Creatinine, µmol/l 162.4 ± 66.4 198 ± 196 162 ± 122.2
  1. ap = 0.027, Mann–Whitney U test between patients with and without hospital-acquired pneumonia. bSepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score categories 3 and 4. cThe diagnoses for the 18 patients without ventilator-associated pneumonia were as follows: cardiac failure, 7 patients; sepsis with ARDS, 6 patients; cancer, 2 patients; atelectasis due to endobronchial lesion (cancer), 1 patient; non-significant growth of acinetobacter 102 (and not treated), 1 patient; no definite diagnosis, 1 patient. GCS, Glasgow coma score; ICU, intensive care unit; IQR, interquartile range; MAP, mean arterial pressure; FiO2, fraction of inspired oxygen; PaO2, partial arterial oxygen tension.