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Table 4 Summary of existing international multicentre literature on case mix and outcomes for admissions to critical care units

From: Case mix, outcome and length of stay for admissions to adult, general critical care units in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre Case Mix Programme Database

  Project IMPACT (US) [26] APACHE III (US) [14] Brazil APACHE III Study [27] ENASSG (US/Europe) [22] EURICUS-I (Europe) [28]
Admissions 40,435 17,440 1734 14,745 10,027
Units 55 42 10 137 89
Mean age 59.9 59 52 57.2 59.3
Male (%) 54.3 44.8 62 59.6 -
Surgical status (%)      
   Nonsurgical 64.1 57.7 64.2 48.4 55.9
   Elective 22.5 33.3 22.7 31.2 24.3
   Emergency 13.4 9.0 13.1 19.6 19.8
Risk model SAPS II APACHE III APACHE III All SAPS II
   Mean probability - 0.165* 0.204 - 0.223
Mortality (%)      
   Unit - - 29 - 13.9
   Hospital 18.2 16.5 34 21.8 20.0
  NICE (Netherlands) [29] ASDI (Austria) [30] PAEEC (Spain) [31] PSSSG (Portugal) [32] JSICM (Japan) [33]
Admissions 55,016 25,998 12,174 984 5,107
Units 18 31 86 19 33
Mean age - 62.1 57.7 55.4 58.3
Male (%) 65.1 58.3 68 67.7 64.5
Surgical status (%)      
   Nonsurgical 23.2 41.5 75.9 68.2 40.8
   Elective 65.4 34.1 13.7 19.6 49.4
   Emergency 11.4 24.4 10.4 12.2 9.8
Risk model APACHE II SAPS II APACHE III APACHE II APACHE III
   Mean probability 0.25 0.193 0.198 0.335 0.181
Mortality (%)      
   Unit 13.3 - - 24.5 -
   Hospital 20.9 17.6 21.2 32.0 18.2
  1. APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; ASDI, Austrian Center for Documentation and Quality Assurance in Intensive Care Medicine; ENASSG, European/North American Severity Study Group; EURICUS, European Study of Intensive Care Units; JSICM, Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine; NICE, National Intensive Care Evaluation; PAEEC, Project for the Epidemiological Analysis of Critical Care Patients; PSSSG, Portuguese Severity Scores Study Group; SAPS, Simplified Acute Physiology Score; -, not available from published report(s). * Observed and expected mortality are identical as this database represents the development population for the APACHE III model. APACHE II mortality probability and mortality figures reported for 24,329 admissions eligible for APACHE II.