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Table 2 Demographic data and risk factors for fungal infection in critically ill patients admitted to the ICU for more than 7 days

From: Isolation of Aspergillus spp. from the respiratory tract in critically ill patients: risk factors, clinical presentation and outcome

Variable Isolation of Aspergillus spp. Candida spp. infection Noncolonized, uninfected patients P
Patients (n) 36 105 720  
Age (years; mean ± SD) 58.7 ± 16.6) 59.5 ± 16.3 56.4 ± 17.4 NS
Men (n [%]) 27 (75) 76 (72.4) 491 (68.2) NS
APACHE II score (mean ± SD) 21.6 ± 6.9 18.5 ± 6.5 18.9 ± 8.1 0.05
ICU stay (days; mean ± SD) 32.1 ± 21.4) 32.8 (22.6) 18.4 (14.1) <0.001
Risk factors before ICU admission (n [%])
Diabetes mellitus 5 (13.9) 18 (17.1) 113 (15.7) NS
COPD 16 (44.4) 16 (15.2) 179 (24.9) 0.002
Solid neoplasm 3 (8.3) 21 (20) 65 (9) 0.002
Hematological neoplasm 1 (2.8) 3 (2.9) 18 (2.5) NS
Transplant recipient 3 (8.3) 0 3 (0.4) <0.001
Immunosuppression 10 (27.8) 8 (7.6) 48 (6.7) <0.001
Chronic renal failure 3 (8.3) 4 (3.8) 26 (3.6) NS
HIV infection 1 (2.8) 2 (1.9) 9 (1.3) NS
Chronic liver disease 2 (5.6) 3 (2.9) 29 (4) NS
Severe heart failure 2 (5.6) 4 (3.8) 41 (5.7) NS
Radiation therapy 0 4 (3.8) 7 (1) NS
Chemotherapy 2 (5.6) 3 (2.9) 13 (1.8) NS
Risk factors during ICU stay
Arterial catheter 31 (86.1) 74 (70.4) 498 (69.1) NS
Venous catheter 36 (100) 104 (99.0) 711 (98.6) NS
Urinary catheter 36 (100) 100 (95.2) 703 (97.5) NS
Mechanical ventilation 35 (97.2) 99 (94.2) 640 (88.8) 0.019
Total parenteral nutrition 20 (55.5) 90 (85.7) 274 (38.0) <0.001
Haemodialysis 11 (30.6) 34 (32.3) 56 (7.8) <0.001
Neutropenia 5 (13.8) 5 (4.7) 20 (2.8) 0.001
Steroids 25 (69.4) 25 (23.8) 139 (19.3) <0.001
Antibiotic treatment 36 (100) 105 (100) 674 (93.5) <0.001
  1. APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ICU, intensive care unit; NS, not significant; SD, standard deviation.