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Table 1 Risk factors recorded before ICU admission and during ICU stay

From: Isolation of Aspergillus spp. from the respiratory tract in critically ill patients: risk factors, clinical presentation and outcome

Risk factor Comments (where applicable)
Before ICU admission  
Surgery before ICU admission Divided into urgent or elective
Diabetes mellitus Only insulin-treated patients
COPD Defined as the presence of a productive cough or expectoration for more than 90 days per year (but on separate days) and for more than 2 consecutive years, provided that a specific disorder responsible for these symptoms was not present
Chronic liver disease With confirmation of the diagnosis by liver biopsy or in patients with signs of portal hypertension, such as oesophageal varices or ascites
Renal failure Defined as need for haemodyalisis or peritoneal dialysis at the time of admission to the hospital
Severe heart failure Defined as New York Heart Association functional class III or IV heart failure
Malignancy Histological evidence required for a diagnosis of solid tumour and definitive diagnosis for the diagnosis of haematological malignancy
HIV infection Defined as HIV-positive status
Neutropenia Total leucocyte count ≤ 500/mm3
Immunosuppression Altered immune status according to APACHE II criteria [8] or in case of a previous diagnosis (congenital or acquired)
Transplant recipients Those patients receiving solid organ or bone marrow transplant
Chemotherapy Use of cytotoxic agents for the treatment of a neoplasm or an autoimmune disease within 30 days before ICU admission
Radiotherapy Radiation therapy within 30 days before ICU admission
During ICU stay  
Presence and duration of catheters Urinary bladder, venous, or arterial catheter
Nutrition Enteral or parenteral nutrition
Mechanical ventilation  
Use of steroids Patients treated with a daily dose equivalent to 20 mg prednisone
Neutropenia Total leucocyte count ≤ 500/mm3
Drug use Antimicrobial and antifungal agents
  1. APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ICU, intensive care unit.