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Table 2 Causes of admission to the intensive care unit in critically ill patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

From: Outcome and prognostic factors in critically ill patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a retrospective study

Cause of admission Total Noninfectious Infectious
Cardiogenic 11 (18.3)   
   Cardiogenic shock   4 (6.6)  
   Ventricular arrhythmia   2 (3.3)  
   Cardiogenic pulmonary oedema   2 (3.3)  
Pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade   3 (5.0)  
Lung injury/respiratory failure 25 (41.6)   
   Pneumonia with ARDS (including one pulmonary tuberculosis)    14 (23.3)
Noncardiogenic pulmonary oedema   7 (11.6)  
   Interstitial pneumonitis   1 (1.6)  
   Pulmonary embolism   1 (1.6)  
   Haemothorax   1 (1.6)  
   Upper airway obstruction   1 (1.6)  
Sepsis without pulmonary infection 13 (21.7)   
   Unknown origin of infection    9 (15.0)
   Infective endocarditis    1 (1.6)
   Peritonitis    1 (1.6)
   Cellulitis    1 (1.6)
   Meningoencephalitis (tuberculous)    1 (1.6)
Neurological disorder 11 (18.3)   
   Status epilepticus    7 (11.6)
Intracranial haemorrhage on admission    3 (5.0)
   Ischaemic stroke    1 (1.6)
  1. Values are expressed as number (%). ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome.