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Table 1 Clinically appropriate methods to quantify pulmonary edema

From: The measurement of lung water

  Measures Quantitation Accuracy* Reproducibility (COV) Sensitivity
CXR LD Poor Unknown Unknown Moderate
CT LD Excellent Unknown Unknown High
NMR TLW Fair Underestimates by -40%§ 5-10% Poor
PET EVLW Excellent Underestimates by 10-15% < 5% High
ID EVLW Good-excellent Overestimates by 10-20%# 4-8% Moderate
  1. *None of the methods can distinguish whether anincrease in extravascular lung water (EVLW) represents non-cellular pulmonaryedema or cellular water from an inflammatory infiltrate.Sensitivity to change. Presumablyexcellent, but formal studies never performed. §Theunderestimates are primarily in normal or mildly edematous lungs.The poor sensitivity is primarily in normal or mildlyedematous lungs. #The overestimation is primarily in normal ormildly edematous lungs. TLW, total lung water (of a region on an image); LD,lung density; COV, coefficient of variation; CXR, chest X-ray; CT, computedtomography; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance; PET, positron emission tomography;ID, indicator dilution methods.