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Table 4 Clinical criteria for high-risk surgical patients used by Shoemaker and colleagues [6] and adapted by Boyd and colleagues [7]

From: Clinical review: How is risk defined in high-risk surgical patient management?

Previous severe cardiorespiratory illness – acute myocardial infarction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or stroke
Late-stage vascular disease involving aorta
Age > 70 years with limited physiological reserve in one or more vital organs
Extensive surgery for carcinoma (e.g. oesophagectomy, gastrectomy cystectomy)
Acute abdominal catastrophe with haemodynamic instability (e.g. peritonitis, perforated viscus, pancreatitis)
Acute massive blood loss > 8 units
Septicaemia
Positive blood culture or septic focus
Respiratory failure: PaO2 < 8.0 kPa on FIO2 > 0.4 or mechanical ventilation > 48 hours
Acute renal failure: urea > 20 mmol/l or creatinine > 260 mmol/l