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Table 3 Summary of literature search results for milrinone

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Inotropic drug therapy after adult cardiac surgery – a systematic literature review

Ref. n Year Study design Level of evidence Comparator Dose End-points
[60]a 45 2002 Prospective, blinded, randomized controlled trial II Amrinone/placebo 50 μg/kg then 0.5 μg/kg per min Haemodynamic parameters
[75] 20 2002 Observational study III - 20 μg/kg Haemodynamic parameters
[76] 20 2002 Observational study III - 50 μg/kg Middle cerebral artery flow
[2]b,c 120 2001 Multicentre, prospective, randomized trial I Dobutamine 50 μg/kg then 0.5 μg/kg per min Haemodynamic parameters
[77]b 20 2001 Prospective, blinded, randomized controlled trial II Control 0.5 μg/kg per min Haemodynamic parameters
[78] 20 2001 Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial II Placebo 0.25 μg/kg per min pHi, inflammatory markers
[64]b 29 2000 Prospective, randomized trial II Amrinone, olprinone 50 μg/kg pHi, hepatic blood flow, oxygenation
[79]c 45 2000 Prospective, randomized trial II NO 50 μg/kg then 0.5 μg/kg per min Haemodynamic parameters; RVEF
[9] 20 2000 Prospective, randomized trial II Epinephrine 50 μg/kg Haemodynamic parameters
[80] 48 2000 Prospective, blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial II Placebo 20 μg/kg then 0.2 μg/kg per min Haemodynamic parameters
[13]b 20 2000 Prospective, randomized trial II Epinephrine 50 μg/kg IMA flow
[81] 24 1999 Prospective, randomized controlled trial II Control 50 μg/kg Inflammatory markers
[27]b 24 1999 Prospective, blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial II Dopamine, placebo 50 μg/kg then 0.375 μg/kg per min pHi, SHVO2, endotoxin levels
[82]b 22 1999 Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial II Placebo 30 μg/kg then 0.5 μg/kg per min Haemodynamic parameters
[83]a,c 21 1998 Prospective, blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial II Placebo 50 μg/kg Haemodynamic parameters
[62]b 44 1998 Prospective, multicentre, randomized trial II Amrinone Two boluses of 25 μg/kg Haemodynamic parameters
[84]b 37 1997 Prospective, randomized controlled trial II Control 50/75 μg/kg then 0.5/0.75 μg/kg per min Haemodynamic parameters
[85]a,c 32 1997 Prospective, blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial II Placebo 50 μg/kg then 0.5 μg/kg per min Haemodynamic parameters
[86]b 24 1996 Observational study III - 25–75 μg/kg then 0.5 μg/kg per min for 1 hour Haemodynamic parameters
[87]b 29 1995 Observational study III - 25–75 μg/kg Haemodynamic parameters
[88]a 20 1995 Prospective, blinded, randomized trial II - 20 and 40 μg/kg then 0.5 μg/kg per min Haemodynamic parameters
[89]b 25 1994 Observational study III - 25, 50, 75 μg/kg or 0.5 μg/kg per min Plasma concentration
[90]b,c 12 1994 Observational study III - 50 μg/kg then 0.5 μg/kg per min Plasma concentration
[91,92]b,c 99 1992 Observational study III - 50 μg/kg then 0.375–0.75 μg/kg per min Haemodynamic parameters
[93]b,c 24 1992 Observational study III - 50 μg/kg then 0.375–0.75 μg/kg per min Haemodynamic parameters
[94]b,c 35 1991 Observational study III - 50 μg/kg then 0.375–0.75 μg/kg per min Haemodynamic parameters
  1. aWeaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. bPostoperative support. cCardiac index < 2.5 l/min per m2 or preoperative left ventricular ejection fraction < 0.4. IMA, internal mammary artery; NO, nitric oxide; pHi, intramucosal pH; RVEF, right ventricular ejection fraction; SHVO2, hepatic vein oxygen saturation.