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Table 1 Grading of responses to questions and levels of evidence

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Inotropic drug therapy after adult cardiac surgery – a systematic literature review

Levels of evidence  
I Randomized trials with low α error (< 0.05) and β error (< 0.8)
II Randomized trials with high α error or low power
III Nonrandomized, concurrent cohort studies
IV Nonrandomized, historic cohort studies
V Case series
Grading of responses to questions  
A Supported by at least two level I investigations
B Supported by only one level I investigation
C Supported by level II investigations only
D Supported by at least one level III investigation
E Supported by level IV or V evidence