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Table 1 Risk factors for oropharyngeal colonization by Gram-negative bacilli

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Therapeutic options and issues in the management of ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia

Life-threatening illness Pulmonary disease
Prolonged hospitalization/intensive care unit stay Smoking
Advanced age Uraemia
Antibiotic exposure Alcoholism
Intubation Coma
Major surgery Multiple organ failure
Malnutrition Neutropenia