Skip to main content

Table 2 Disease states classified according to the Stewart approach

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Fundamental principles of acid-base physiology

Acid–base disturbance Disease state Examples
Metabolic alkalosis Low serum albumin Nephrotic syndrome, hepatic cirrhosis
  High SID+ Chloride loss: vomiting, gastric drainage, diuretics, post-hypercapnea, Cl- wasting diarrhea due to villous adenoma, mineralocorticoid excess, Cushing's syndrome, Liddle's syndrome, Bartter's syndrome, exogenous corticosteroids, licorice Na2+ load (such as acetate, citrate, lactate): Ringer's solution, TPN, blood transfusion
Metabolic acidosis Low SID+ and high SIG Ketoacids, lactic acid, salicylate, formate, methanol
  Low SID+ and low SIG RTA, TPN, saline, anion exchange resins, diarrhea, pancreatic losses
  1. RTA, renal tubular acidosis; SIG, strong ion gap; SID+, strong ion difference; TPN, total parenteral nutrition.