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Table 1 Classification of acid–base disorders

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Fundamental principles of acid-base physiology

Stewart variables/constants Classification Acidosis Alkalosis
PCO2 Respiratory
[SID+] Metabolic   
   Chloride excess/deficit  
   Strong ion gap   
[ATOT]a Modulator   
Rate constants Modulator   
(Ka, K'w, K'1, K3, and SCO2)    
  1. aChanges in [ATOT] modulate and do not necessarily cause acid–base disorders. bResult in negligible changes in pH. cMay be clinically significant in hypothermia. [ATOT], total concentration of weak acids; DPG, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate; Hgb, hemoglobin; PCO2, partial CO2 tension; SCO2, CO2 solubility; SID+, strong ion difference.