Skip to main content

Table 1 Causes of rhabdomyolysis

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Rhabdomyolysis – an overview for clinicians

Physical causes
   Trauma and compression Crush injuries
  Motor vehicle accidents
  Long-term confinement without changing position
  Physical torture and abuse
  Prolonged hours of surgery without changing position
   Vessel occlusion Embolism
  In situ thrombosis
  Vessel clamping during surgery
   Shock states
   Strainful muscle exercise Amphetamine overdose
   Excessive muscle activity Delirium tremens
  Epilepsy
  Overexertion (e.g. long distance running)
   Tetanus
   Electrical current Cardioversion
  High-voltage electrical injury
  Lightning
   Hyperthermia Exercise
  Malignant hyperthermia
  Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
   Sepsis
Nonphysical causes
   Metabolic syndromes Carnitine deficiency
  Creatinine palmitoyl transferase deficiency
  McArdle disease (myophosphorylase deficiency)
  Mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme deficiencies
  Phosphofruktokinase deficiency
   Toxins Heavy metals
  Insect venoms
  Snake venoms
   Drugs See Table 2
   Infections Coxsackievirus
  Falciparum malaria
  Herpes viruses
  HIV
  Legionella
  Salmonella
  Streptoccocus
  Tularemia
   Electrolyte imbalances Hyperosmotic conditions
  Hypernatremia
  Hypocalcemia
  Hyponatremia
  Hypokalemia
  Hypophosphatemia
   Endocrine disorders Hyperaldosteronism
  Hypothyroidism
  Ketoacidosis
  Hyperaldosteronism
   Autoimmune diseases Polymyositis
  Dermatomyositis