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Table 3 Literature review

From: Early tracheostomy in intensive care trauma patients improves resource utilization: a cohort study and literature review

Ref. Type of study Number of patients Reason for admission Timing of tracheostomy Main outcomes
[3] Retrospective 101 Blunt multiple trauma Early tracheostomy ≤4 days
Late Tracheostomy >4 days
↓Duration of MV, ↓incidence of nosocomial pneumonia
[14] Retrospective 31 Head trauma Early tracheostomy ≥7 days
Late tracheostomy >7 days
↓Duration of MV, ↓hospital LOS, ↓ICU LOS
[15] Retrospective 118 Multiple trauma Early tracheostomy ≤3 days
Intermediate tracheostomy 4–7 days
Late tracheostomy >7 days
↓Incidence of pneumonia
[18] Retrospective 157 Blunt trauma Early tracheostomy ≤6 days
Late tracheostomy >6 days
↓Duration of MV, ↓ICU LOS, ↓hospital LOS, ↓hospital charges
[16] Retrospective 30 Neurosurgical (CVA, head injury, trauma, infection) Early tracheostomy ≤7 days
Late tracheostomy >7 days
↓Duration of MV, ↓incidence of colonization, ↓faster recovery from pneumonia
[17] Prospective randomized 106 Multiple trauma Early tracheostomy ≤7 days
Late tracheostomy >7 days
↓Duration of MV, ↓ICU LOS, ↓hospital LOS, ↓pneumonia if tracheostomy was performed earlier than 3 days
[2]a Prospective randomized multicentre 157 eligible
patients
Head-trauma, Nonhead trauma, no trauma First randomization: 3–5 days
Second randomization: 10–14
No difference in ICU LOS, frequency of pneumonia, or death
  1. aOf five participating centres, only one completed the study; of 157 eligible patients, only 112 completed the study because of physician bias and incomplete information; and only 14 patients entered the second randomization. ICU, intensive care unit; LOS, length of stay; MV, mechanical ventilation.