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Table 1 Effects of acids on inflammatory mediators in macrophages

From: Science review: Extracellular acidosis and the immune response: clinical and physiologic implications

Acid pHo Cells LPS Effect Reference
HCl 6.5 Alveolar macrophages (+) ↑TNF mRNA 5
HCl 5.5 Alveolar macrophages (+) ↑TNF mRNA/↓TNF secretion 5
HCl 5.5 RAW (+) No ΔTNF mRNA/↓TNF secretion 7
HCl 7.0 Alveolar macrophages (+) ↓TNF secretion 8
HCl 7.0 Peritoneal macrophages (-) ↑NO, ↑TNF*, ↑NF-κB 6
HCl 7.2 RAW (+) ↑NO 9
LA 6.7 Peritoneal macrophages (+) ↑TNF mRNA/↑TNF secretion 10
DS 6.0 Peritoneal macrophages (+) ↓TNF mRNA/↓TNF secretion 14
DS 6.5 Human blood-borne macrophages (+) ↓TNF mRNA, ↓NF-κB 15
  1. *Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was not measured directly. DS, lactate-based dialysis solution; LA, lactic acid; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; NF-κB, nuclear factor-κB; NO, nitric oxide; NR, not recorded; pHo, extracellular pH.