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Table 1 Common animal models of acute lung injury

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Acute respiratory distress syndrome – how neutrophils migrate into the lung

Model Current knowledge Reproducibility Clinical relevance Concerns
LPS (iv or ip) +++ +++ +++ Different LPS strains with variable biologic effects; mimics bacterial effects only in part
LPS (intratracheal) +++ +++ +++ Heterogeneous distribution in the lung; might not reach small bronchi or alveoli; might also result in aspiration injury
LPS (aerosolized) ++ ++ +++ Effective dosage difficult to control
Live bacteria (systemic or intratracheal) +++ +++ +++ Supportive therapy needed (fluid resuscitation; antibiotics)
Cecal ligation and puncture ++ + +++ Supportive therapy needed; standardized intervention difficult
Acid aspiration +++ +++ ++ Different models of installation the acid (whole lung versus focal); requirement for anesthesia
Ischemia/reperfusion + ++ ++ Technically challenging; different models (in vivo, ex vivo, with or without bronchus ligation, with or without mechanical ventilation)
Others* + ++ + Not yet systematically studied
  1. Shown are common animal models of acute lung injury with respect to current knowledge about the model (+ = scant, +++ = rich), reproducibility of the insult (+ = limited, +++ = excellent), and clinical relevance (+ = limited, +++ = high). *Hemorrhage, pancreatitis, IgG complex deposition, instillation of various chemoattractants and/or antibodies to chemoattractants. ip, intraperitoneal; iv, intravenous; LPS lipopolysaccharide.