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Table 2 Median biomarker levels at baseline by quartile of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (n = 1690)

From: Universal changes in biomarkers of coagulation and inflammation occur in patients with severe sepsis, regardless of causative micro-organism [ISRCTN74215569]

Biomarker 1st Quartile (median [95% CI]) 2nd Quartile (median [95% CI]) 3rd Quartile (median [95% CI]) 4th Quartile (median [95% CI]) ρ P
D-dimer (μg/ml) 3.84 (3.60–4.24) 3.93 (3.59–4.61) 4.11 (3.49–5.03) 5.03 (4.41–5.56) 0.10 <0.001a
IL-6 (pg/ml) 289 (245–369) 384 (322–489) 623 (494–829) 1043 (809–1613) 0.23 <0.001
Protein C (%) 0.52 (0.49–0.55) 0.48 (0.45–0.51) 0.50 (0.44–0.53) 0.42 (0.40–0.45) -0.12 <0.001a
AT (%) 0.62 (0.60–0.65) 0.59 (0.57–0.62) 0.60 (0.57–0.63) 0.55 (0.53–0.57) -0.11 <0.001
Protein S (%) 0.42 (0.36–0.47) 0.37 (0.33–0.41) 0.38 (0.33–0.46) 0.33 (0.30–0.35) -0.07 0.006a
PT (seconds) 18.1 (17.6–18.4) 18.5 (18.0–19.0) 18.6 (18.2–19.0) 19.7 (19.1–20.1) 0.15 <0.001
APTT (seconds) 40.5 (39.9–42.3) 42.5 (40.9–43.9) 42.5 (40.3–43.6) 45.1 (43.4–46.4) 0.13 <0.001
Platelets (109/l) 184 (173–192) 182 (167–191) 185 (174–199) 179 (167–192) -0.03 0.19
F1.2 (nmol/l) 1.65 (1.38–1.87) 1.83 (1.49–2.19) 2.09 (1.67–2.38) 1.60 (1.38–1.91) 0.04 0.49b
TAT (μg/l) 10.7 (9.3–13.8) 10.8 (9.1–13.4) 11.7 (10.1–16.3) 12.3 (9.9–14.8) 0.06 0.27
PAI-1 (AU/ml) 25 (21.0–33.0) 33 (28–38) 34 (26–40) 40 (36–55) 0.24 <0.001
TAFI (μg/ml) 4.4 (3.7–4.9) 4.3 (3.7–4.8) 4.5 (4.1–5.3) 5.4 (4.5–6.1) 0.12 0.03a
α2-AP (%) 103 (93–106) 93 (90–105) 96 (90–113) 95 (88–105) -0.04 0.43
Plasminogen (%) 62.0 (57–69) 59.5 (52–65) 60.5 (58–67) 60.0 (55–70) 0.004 0.94
sTM (ng/ml) 61 (56–71) 62 (52–75) 83 (73–109) 91 (74–117) 0.29 <0.001
IL-1β (pg/ml) ≤10 (10–10) ≤10 (10–10) ≤10 (10–10) ≤10 (10–10) 0.06 0.26
IL-10 (pg/ml) ≤10 (10–10) ≤10 (10–10) ≤10 (10–30) ≤10 (10–27) 0.16 0.001
IL-8 (pg/ml) 50 (50–50) 50 (50–50) 50 (50–144) 117 (50–177) 0.21 <0.001
TNF-α (pg/ml) ≤10 (10–21) 22 (10–27) 21 (10–41) 28 (21–33) 0.17 0.005
  1. The quartiles of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores are as follows: 1st quartile, score 3–19; 2nd quartile, score 20–24; 3rd quartile, score 25–29; and 4th quartile, score 30–53. Spearman rank correlation (ρ) is between continuous values of APACHE with each biomarker. aNonsignificant correlation with APACHE if 4th quartile is deleted. bSignificant correlation with APACHE if 4th quartile is deleted. α2-AP, α2-antiplasmin; APTT, activated partial thromboplastin time; AT, antithrombin; CI, confidence interval; F1.2, prothrombin fragment 1.2; IL, interleukin; PAI, plasminogen activator inhibitor; PT, prothrombin time; TAFI, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor; sTM, soluble thrombomodulin; TAT, thrombin–antithrombin complex; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.