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Table 1 Biomarkers of coagulation, fibrinolysis, endothelial injury, and inflammation in all patients upon entry into the PROWESS trial (n = 1690)

From: Universal changes in biomarkers of coagulation and inflammation occur in patients with severe sepsis, regardless of causative micro-organism [ISRCTN74215569]

Biomarkers n Normal range Median level (25th–75th percentile) Abnormal patients (%)
Procoagulant activity     
D-dimer (μg/ml) 1550 0–0.39 4.2 (2.2–8.3) 99.7a
TAT (μg/l) 397 1–4.1 11 (7.4–19.7) 95.5a
F1.2 (nmol/l) 396 0.44–1.1 1.8 (1.1–2.6) 77.5a
Anticoagulant activity     
Protein C (%) 1574 81–173 48 (31–65) 87.6b
Protein S (%) 1541 60–155 36 (22–57) 77.8b
AT (%) 1558 80–120 59 (44–75) 81.7b
Global coagulation tests     
Platelet counts (109/l) 1419 140–400 182 (118–251) 32.7b
PT (seconds) 1558 10.6–14.5 18.7 (16.5–22.0) 93.4a
APTT (seconds) 1561 21–39 42.6 (36.3–50.4) 63.1a
Fibrinolytic activity     
PAI-1 (AU/ml) 298 4–37.8 34 (20–64) 44.0a
TAFI (μg/ml) 319 2.8–9.2 4.6 (3.1–6.5) 17.6b
α2-AP (%) 319 80–120 98 (81–115) 51.1b
Plasminogen (%) 316 64–111 61 (48–75) 57.3b
Endothelial injury     
sTM (ng/ml) 314 18–53 73 (51–117) 72.0a
Inflammatory marker     
IL-6 (pg/ml) 1635 0.38–10.1 492 (144–2574) 98.5a
  1. aPercentage of patients with values higher than the upper limit of normal. bPercentage of patients with values lower than the lower limit of normal. α2-AP, α2-antiplasmin; APTT, activated partial thromboplastin time; AT, antithrombin; F1.2, prothrombin fragment 1.2; IL, interleukin; PAI, plasminogen activator inhibitor; PT, prothrombin time; TAFI, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor; sTM, soluble thrombomodulin; TAT, thrombin–antithrombin complex.