Changes in hemodynamic parameters following the removal of the right internal jugular vein introducer (time = 0). There was an initial rise in blood pressure and in heart rate at the time of air entry into the circulation. This was followed by severe hypotension, which was treated with intravenous (i.v.) norepinephrine. At the time of insertion of a pulmonary artery catheter, approximately 20 hours after the removal of the introducer, the patient's cardiac index was elevated and the systemic vascular resistance was low. These parameters normalized during the next 2 days. MAP, mean arterial pressure.