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Table 3 Currently recognized ligands for Toll-like receptor 2

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Toll-like receptors and their role in septic shock

Organism Product
Gram-negative bacteria Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from various sources; possibly contaminated with peptides (Salmonella, Shigella spp., Escherichia coli). Purified LPS from Leptospira interrogans and Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS
Gram-positive bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus, Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus-lipoteichoic acid, peptidoglycan, lipopeptides
Mycobacteria Heat-killed Mycobacteria tuberculosis, Mycobacteria avium lipopeptides, lipoarabinomannan, mannosylated phosphatidylinositol
Spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi, Treponema pallidum, Treponema maltophilum (lipopeptides, glycolipids, outer surface protein A)
Mycoplasma Mycoplasma fermentans (R-MALP, lipopeptides)
Yeast Zymosan