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Table 2 Currently recognized ligands for Toll-like receptor 4

From: Bench-to-bedside review: Toll-like receptors and their role in septic shock

Microorganism Microbial product
Gram-negative bacteria Lipopolysaccharide, lipid A
Gram-positive bacteria Lipoteichoic acid
Mycobacteria Live Mycobacteria tuberculosis
Spirochetes Treponema brennaborense glycolipids
Virus Respiratory syncytial virus protein F
Other ligands Heat shock protein 60, Taxol