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Table 1 Measuring tissue oxygenation

From: Clinical review: Hemodynamic monitoring in the intensive care unit

Monitor Method Variables Global/regional Invasive/non-invasive
Systemic oxygenation Pulmonary artery catheter VO2/DO2/ERO2 Global Invasive
Mixed venous O2 saturation Pulmonary artery catheter–blood gas analyses SVO2 Global Invasive
Lactate Laboratory–enzymatic testing Lactate Global Invasive
Gastrointestinal tonometry Measurement of pCO2 in an air-filled or saline-filled balloon prCO2/pCO2 gap, pHi Regional Minimally invasive
Near-infrared spectroscopy Absorbance analysis of near-infrared light Hb/O2Hb, cytochrome aa3 Regional Non-invasive
Oxygen electrodes Polarographic probes pO2 Regional Minimally invasive
  1. DO2, oxygen delivery; ERO2, oxygen extraction ratio; Hb/O2Hb, deoxygenated/oxygenated hemoglobin; pCO2 gap, arterial-to-intramucosal partial pressure of carbon dioxide difference; pHi, gastric intramucosal pH; pO2, partial pressure of oxygen; prCO2, regional gastric carbon dioxide tension; SvO2, mixed venous oxygen saturation; VO2, oxygen consumption.