Earliest Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) represents the earliest available SOFA score within 72 hours of clinical deterioration. Peak SOFA represent highest SOFA score within 72 hours of clinical deterioration. ΔSOFA represent changes in consecutive SOFA scores. Thresholds selected based on receiver operating characteristic analysis. aAdjusted odds ratio derived after adjusting for age, gender, severe sepsis, pneumonia, and congestive heart failure. CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio; ORadj, adjusted odds ratio.