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Table 3 Cause-specific relative hazards a for limitation of life support in 490 patients with acute lung injury

From: Age and decisions to limit life support for patients with acute lung injury: a prospective cohort study

  Baseline modelb Time-varying modelb
Patient demographic at enrollment RH (95% CI) P value RH (95% CI) P value
Age (10-year increase) 1.32 (1.18 to 1.48) 0.001 1.24 (1.11 to 1.40) 0.001
Female 0.99 (0.73 to 1.34) 0.96 0.97 (0.71 to 1.32) 0.86
Nonwhite 1.23 (0.89 to 1.70) 0.21 1.37 (0.99 to 1.92) 0.06
Cancer history 1.18 (0.78 to 1.79) 0.42 1.59 (1.04 to 2.43) 0.03
Charlson Comorbidity Index 1.02 (0.96 to 1.09) 0.53 0.98 (0.92 to 1.05) 0.58
Functional Comorbidity Index 1.00 (0.90 to 1.10) 0.94 1.03 (0.93 to 1.14) 0.53
Study site hospital     
1 (reference group) Reference Reference Reference Reference
2 1.19 (0.81 to 1.77) 0.38 1.32 (0.90 to 1.94) 0.15
3 1.14 (0.75 to 1.73) 0.55 1.13 (0.76 to 1.69) 0.54
Days in hospital before ALI onset (1-day increase) 1.01 (0.99 to 1.02) 0.29 0.99 (0.98 to 1.00) 0.01
Medical ICU 1.92 (1.20 to 3.07) 0.007 1.87 (1.16 to 3.02) 0.01
APACHE II score at ICU admission 1.02 (0.99 to 1.04) 0.15 0.99 (0.97 to 1.01) 0.28
Components of SOFA score     
 Respiratory 0.93 (0.75 to 1.15) 0.50 1.19 (1.02 to 1.40) 0.03
 Cardiovascular 1.06 (0.96 to 1.17) 0.28 1.47 (1.33 to 1.63) 0.001
 Hepatic 1.25 (1.08 to 1.44) 0.002 1.17 (1.03 to 1.33) 0.01
 Coagulation 1.10 (0.96 to 1.27) 0.18 1.23 (1.07 to 1.41) 0.004
 Renal 1.05 (0.93 to 1.18) 0.43 1.15 (1.03 to 1.29) 0.02
 Neurologic 1.01 (0.90 to 1.14) 0.82 1.10 (0.98 to 1.22) 0.10
  1. ALI, acute lung injury; APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; CI, confidence interval; RH, relative hazard; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment. aThe relative hazard describes the relative risk of a new limitation in life support on a specific day in the ICU among patients who have not had a cardiac arrest or been discharged from the ICU. For example, a patient with a relative hazard of 1.59 has a 59% increased risk of having a limitation in life support that day compared with the reference patient if neither patient has a cardiac arrest or is discharged from the ICU. bThe baseline model was adjusted for each component of SOFA score on the day of ALI onset. The time-varying model was adjusted for each component of SOFA score on all days in the ICU prior to the day of first event. Both models are adjusted for sex, race, oncology comorbidity, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Functional Comorbidity Index, study site hospital, days in hospital before ALI onset, ICU type, and APACHE II score at ICU admission.