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Table 3 Comparison of survivors and non-survivors

From: Time from admission to initiation of surgery for source control is a critical determinant of survival in patients with gastrointestinal perforation with associated septic shock

  Bivariate model Multivariate model
  Survivors (n = 120) Non-survivors (n = 34) P-value Odds ratio 95% CI P-value
• Patient background       
  Age, years, mean ± SD 64.3 ± 14.4 74.1 ± 8.7 0.0002* 0.95 0.88, 1.00 0.071
  Male:female ratio 68:52 20:14 0.82    
• Perforation site, number of patients (%)       
  Small intestine 51 (42.5) 15 (44.1) 0.76    
  Colon 49 (40.8) 14 (41.2)    
  Stomach 7 (5.8) 1 (2.9)    
  Duodenum 5 (4.2) 1 (2.9)    
  Rectum 6 (5.0) 1 (2.9)    
Combinations 2 (1.7) 2 (5.9)    
• Severity on admission, mean ± SD      
  SOFA score 8.5 ± 3.3 11.5 ± 4.3 <0.0001* 0.80 0.66, 0.95 0.014**
  APACHE-II score 22.8 ± 8.5 28.1 ± 7.9 0.0014* - - -
  MOD score 4.3 ± 2.9 6.5 ± 3.7 0.0004* - - -
  Mean arterial pressure on admission, mm Hg 62.3 ± 29.5 62.2 ± 31.6 0.38    
  Blood lactate concentration on admission, mmol/L 5.0 ± 3.6 8.1 ± 4.4 <0.0001* 0.88 0.77, 1.01 0.078
  ScvO2 on admission, % 60.8 ± 11.8 52.2 ± 12.1 0.0003* 1.04 0.99, 1.09 0.13
• Extent of peritonitis, number of patients (%)       
  Abscess 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.95    
  One quadrant 0 (0) 0 (0)    
  Two quadrants 7 (5.8) 2 (5.9)    
  Three quadrants 60 (50.0) 16 (47.1)    
  Four quadrants 53 (44.2) 16 (47.1)    
• Fluid resuscitation, mean ± SD      
  Infusion volume within 2 hours of admission, ml 2915.8 ± 618.5 2657.4 ± 409.0 0.023* 1.00 1.00, 1.00 0.17
  Infusion volume within 6 hours of admission,ml 5153.8 ± 694.0 5024.3 ± 775.2 0.35    
• Antimicrobial therapy       
  Patients with inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy, number (%) 23 (19.2) 7 (20.6) 0.85    
  Time from admission to initiation of antimicrobial therapy, hours# 2.3 ± 0.32 2.3 ± 0.38 0.48    
• Surgery       
  Time from admission to initiation of surgery, hours, mean ± SD 2.6 ± 1.0 4.6 ± 1.6 <0.0001* 0.29 0.16 – 0.47 <0.0001**
  Duration of surgery, hours, mean ± SD 3.4 ± 1.4 3.4 ± 1.4 0.92    
  Patients needing re-laparotomy##, number (%) 13 (10.8) 5 (14.7) 0.54    
  Patients needing open abdominal technique, number (%) 1 (0.8) 1 (2.9) 0.33    
   *P-value <0.2     **P-value <0.05
  1. All variables with P-value <0.2 in the bivariate model were taken forward to the multivariate model (multiple logistic regression analysis). * meant p-value was less than 0.2. The SOFA score was chosen for the multivariate model from among the SOFA, APACHE-II and MOD scores which had multi-colinearity. The SOFA score and time from admission to initiation of surgery were selected as independent factors associated with 60-day survival by multiple logistic regression analysis with a P-value <0.05. ** meant p-value was less than 0.05. SOFA, sequential organ failure assessment; APACHE-II, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II; MOD, multiple organ dysfunction; MAP, mean arterial pressure; ScvO2, central venous oxygen saturation. #Initiation of antimicrobial therapy was defined as administration of the first antimicrobial agent to the patient. ##Re-laparotomy includes both planned laparotomy and unplanned laparotomy with the exception of secondary radical operation for gastric cancer.