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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of all patients

From: Time from admission to initiation of surgery for source control is a critical determinant of survival in patients with gastrointestinal perforation with associated septic shock

Number of patients: 154
• Patient background  
  Age, years, mean ± SD 66.5 ± 13.9
  Male:female ratio 88:66
• Perforation site, number of patients (%)  
  Small intestine 66 (42.9)
  Colon 63 (40.9)
  Stomach 8 (5.2)
  Duodenum 6 (3.9)
  Rectum 7 (4.5)
  Combinations 4 (2.6)
• Severity on admission, mean ± SD  
  SOFA score 9.14 ± 3.78
  APACHE-II score 24.0 ± 8.62
  MOD score 4.77 ± 3.23
  MAP on admission, mmHg 66.2 ± 29.9
  Blood lactate concentration on admission, mmol/L 5.69 ± 4.03
  ScvO2 on admission, % 58.9 ± 12.4
• Extent of peritonitis, number of patients (%)  
  Abscess 0 (0)
  One quadrant 0 (0)
  Two quadrants 9 (5.8)
  Three quadrants 76 (49.4)
  Four quadrants 71 (44.8)
• Fluid resuscitation, mean ± SD  
  Infusion volume within 2 hours of admission, ml 2858.8 ± 587.5
  Infusion volume within 6 hours of admission, ml 5125.2 ± 712.1
• Microbiology, number of patients (%)  
  Escherichia coli 75 (48.7)
  Proteus spp. 20 (13.0)
  Klebsiella spp. 16 (10.4)
  Pseudomonas aeruginosa 20 (13.0)
  Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 11 (7.1)
  Enterococcus spp. 8 (5.2)
  Bacteroides spp. 42 (27.3)
  Clostridium spp. 6 (4.0)
  Yeast/fungi 11 (7.1)
• Antimicrobial therapy  
  Initial antimicrobial therapy, appropriate:inappropriate ratio 124:30
  Time from admission to initiation of antimicrobial therapy, hours*, mean ± SD 2.3 ± 0.3
• Surgery  
  Time from admission to initiation of surgery, hours, mean ± SD 3.1 ± 1.5
  Duration of surgery, hours, mean ± SD 3.4 ± 1.4
  Addition of re-laparotomy**, number of patients (%) 18 (11.7)
  Damage control laparotomy, number of patients (%) 0 (0)
  Open abdominal technique, number of patients (%) 2 (1.3)
• ICU stay, days, mean ± SD 34.7 ± 36.9
• Surviving patients, number (%)  
28-day 127 (82.5)
60-day 120 (77.9)
  1. SOFA, sequential organ failure assessment; APACHE-II, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II; MOD, multiple organ dysfunction; MAP, mean arterial pressure; ScvO2, central venous oxygen saturation. *Initiation of antimicrobial therapy was defined as administration of the first antimicrobial agent to the patient. **Re-laparotomy includes both planned laparotomy and unplanned laparotomy with the exception of secondary radical operation for gastric cancer.