Effect of lipid emulsions on mediators in the BAL after LPS-induced ARDS. A. For all treatment groups (*, NaCl; **, LCT; ***, LCT/MCT; §, LCT/MCT/FO), TNF-α concentrations were increased 4 h after ARDS induction. After 24 h of injury, the LCT/MCT/FO group showed reduced levels as compared to NaCl and LCT ($). The highest concentrations were found in the NaCl group 48 h after ARDS induction (%). B. Highest MIP-2 concentrations in the NaCl group were measured 4 h after LPS application (*). Under basal conditions, LCT (**) and LCT/MCT (***) displayed elevated levels compared to NaCl. The highest values were measured after 4 h in all groups (§). Animals infused with LCT/MCT/FO displayed the lowest MIP-2 levels at 24 h compared to the other groups ($). After 48 h, the highest concentrations were detectable for NaCl in comparison to LCT and LCT/MCT/FO (%). C. A significant increase of TxB2 in the NaCl group was observed after 24 h compared to baseline (*). After 24 h and 48 h, TxB2 was rising in the LCT- (**) and LCT/MCT-group (**) compared to baseline. After 24 h, reduced levels were detected in the LCT/MCT/FO group as compared to LCT and LCT/MCT ($). After 48 h the highest concentrations were measured in animals receiving LCT/MCT compared to NaCl and LCT/MCT/FO (%). D. PGE2 values were elevated in all treatment groups compared to 0 h and 4 h (*). Mice treated with LCT/MCT/FO showed significantly reduced PGE2 concentration after 48 h as compared to NaCl and LCT ($). Data are given as mean ± SEM (n = 6 to 8 independent experiments each). All markers are P <0.05. ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; FO, fish oil; LCT, pure long-chain triglycerides; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; MCT, medium-chain triglycerides; MIP-2, macrophage inflammatory protein; PGE2, prostaglandin E2; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor alpha; TxB2, thromboxane B2.