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Table 1 Comparison of survivors and non-survivors after ECMO

From: Prediction of mortality in adult patients with severe acute lung failure receiving veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: a prospective observational study

  Non-survivors (n = 117) Survival to discharge (n = 187) P-value
Baseline clinical characteristics    
Age (years) 54 (50 to 57) 46 (43 to 48) <0.001
Immunocompromised statea 37 (31.6%) 26 (13.9%) <0.001
Sequential organ failure assessment score 13 (12 to 14) 11 (11 to 12) 0.001
Continuous veno-venous hemofiltration pre-ECMO 45 (38.5%) 36 (19.3%) <0.001
Classification of acute lung injuryb    0.022
- Group 1: Pulmonary 56 (47.9%) 107 (57.2%)  
- Group 2: Extra-pulmonary 36 (30.8%) 36 (19.3%)  
- Group 3: Trauma 10 (8.6%) 29 (15.5%)  
- Group 4: Others 15 (12.8%) 15 (8.0%)  
Pre-ECMO duration (days) of    
- Hospitalization 10 (8 to 12) 5 (4 to 7) 0.023
- Mechanical ventilation 5 (3 to 7) 2 (2 to 3) 0.013
Baseline cardiorespiratory parameters
Minute ventilation (L/minute) 11.2 (10.6 to 12.0) 10.4 (10.0 to 10.9) 0.038
Baseline laboratory parameters
Lactate (mmol/L) 38 (30 to 47) 23 (20 to 27) 0.002
Lactate dehydrogenase (U/L) 510 (446 to 608) 452 (408 to 499) 0.076
Bilirubin (mg/dL) 1.2 (0.9 to 1.6) 0.9 (0.8 to 1.1) 0.060
ASAT (U/L) 122 (96 to 159) 78 (65 to 96) 0.005
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 9.8 (9.4 to 10.3) 10.9 (10.5 to 11.3) <0.001
D-dimer (mg/L) 11 (9 to 14) 8 (7 to 10) 0.022
Procedural characteristics of ECMO treatment
Transport-ECMO (no/yes) 34 (29.1%) 99 (52.9%) <0.001
Red cell transfusions (about 320 mL) per patient 8 (6 to 9) 3 (3 to 4) <0.001
Plasma transfusions (about 250 mL) per patient 3 (2 to 5) 0 (0 to 1) 0.001
Platelet transfusions (about 270 mL) per patient 1 (0 to 1) 0 (0 to 0) <0.001
Laboratory and cardiorespiratory status after one day on ECMO
Minute ventilation (L/minute) 5 (5 to 6) 4 (4 to 5) 0.011
Tidal volume (mL) 305 (278 to 332) 278 (262 to 294) 0.097
Norepinephrine infusion (μg/minute/kg) 0.18 (0.13 to 0.25) 0.12 (0.09 to 0.14) 0.041
Blood gas analysis    
- FiO2 (%) 65 (60 to 68) 55 (52 to 58) <0.001
- PaO2/FiO2 (mmHg) 122 (112 to 133) 146 (137 to 155) <0.001
Laboratory parameters    
- Lactate (mmol/L) 36 (27 to 47) 24 (21 to 28) 0.002
- C-reactive protein (mg/L) 162 (143 to 180) 214 (196 to 231) <0.001
- Bilirubin (mg/dL) 1.9 (1.5 to 2.3) 1.1 (1.0 to 1.3) 0.015
- Lactate dehydrogenase (U/L) 584 (502 to 717) 511 (462 to 573) 0.054
- International normalized ratio 1.38 (1.32 to 1.48) 1.27 (1.24 to 1.31) 0.002
  1. Continuous variables are shown as median (95% confidence interval), categorical variables as n (%). Differences for survivors and non-survivors are shown for P <0.1. A wider comparison can be seen in Additional file 4. aImmunocompromised state included hematological malignancies, solid tumors, solid organ transplantation, high-dose or long-term corticosteroid or other immunosuppressive therapy, or human immunodeficiency virus infection. bGroup 1: primary lung failure, including bacterial, viral, fungal or aspiration pneumonia; Group 2: extra-pulmonary sepsis with secondary lung injury; Group 3: multiple trauma with ARDS; Group 4: other pathologies, including near drowning, chronic lung diseases, such as lung fibrosis and lung transplantation. ASAT, aspartate aminotransferase; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; FiO2,fraction of inspired oxygen; PaO2/FiO2, ratio of partial arterial oxygen pressure/fraction of inspired oxygen; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment.