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Table 1 Short-term and longer-term effects of corticosteroids on mortality

From: Exploring the heterogeneity of effects of corticosteroids on acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Mortality endpoints Number of Relative risk Risk difference
Studies Patients Effect size (95% CI) I2 Effect size (95% CI) I2
Randomized controlled trials a       
 ICU mortality 3 292 0.55 (0.24 to 1.25) 75% −0.28 (−0.53 to −0.03)* 76%
 Hospital mortality 2 201 0.49 (0.12 to 2.07) 77% −0.26 (−0.65 to 0.13) 75%
 60-day mortality 2 279 0.97 (0.75 to 1.26) 0% −0.01 (−0.12 to 0.10) 0%
Cohort studies       
 ICU mortality 5 226 1.05 (0.74 to 1.49) 1% Not calculable -
 Hospital mortality 4 317 1.00 (0.23 to 4.34) 75% Not calculable -
 60-day mortality 2 264 1.30 (0.96 to 1.78) 0% Not calculable -
  1. aTrials testing preventive therapy of corticosteroids for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were excluded. Some studies provided data on both short-term and longer-term mortality. For cohort studies, only pooled relative risk was provided because adjusted results were needed for data pooling *P-value <0.05.