Skip to main content

Table 1 Comparison of baseline characteristics for patient with low (below median) and high (above median) mean daily calorie intake (DCI)

From: Calorie intake and patient outcomes in severe acute kidney injury: findings from The Randomized Evaluation of Normal vs. Augmented Level of Replacement Therapy (RENAL) study trial

Baseline characteristics Low DCI, n = 729 High DCI, n = 728 P-value
Age 65.4 (14.8) 64.7 (14.9) 0.022
Male sex 457 (62.7%) 484/728 (66.5%) 0.129
eGFR 53.0 (30.9) 60.1 (30.7) 0.001
Mechanical ventilation 437 (59.9%) 639 (87.8%) <0.001
Severe sepsis at baseline 307 (42.1%) 412 (56.6%) <0.001
APACHE III score 103.4 (25.8) 101.5 (25.6) 0.163
SOFA cardiovascular 2.7 (1.6) 3.0 (1.4) <0.001
SOFA respiration (score) 2.5 (1.1) 3.0 (0.7) <0.001
SOFA coagulation (score) 0.8 (1.1) 1.1 (1.2) <0.001
SOFA liver (score) 0.9 (1.2) 1.0 (1.1) 0.300
Weight 79.9 (12.8) 81.4 (13.0) 0.029
Source of admission    
  Accident and emergency department 187/686 (27.3%) 161/679 (23.7%) 0.003
  Hospital floor/ward 215/686 (31.3%) 172/679 (25.3%)  
  Transfer from another ICU 43/686 (6.3%) 66/679 (9.7%)  
  Transfer from another hospital 65/686 (9.5%) 89/679 (16.6%)  
  Operating room/recovery after emergency surgery 91/686 (13.3%) 113/679 (11.5%)  
  Operating room/recovery after elective surgery 85/686 (12.4%) 78/679 (14.1%)  
Non-operative admission diagnosis    
  Cardiovascular 245/536 (45.7%) 287/510 (56/3%) <0.001
  Genitourinary 177/536 (33.0%) 52/510 (10.2%)  
  Gastrointestinal 39/536 (7.3%) 36/510 (7.1%)  
  Hematology 10/536 (1.9%) 12/510 (2.4%)  
  Metabolic/endocrine 14/536 (2.6%) 11/510 (2.2%)  
  Neurologic 4/536 (0.7%) 6/511 (1.2%)  
  Respiratory 43/536 (8.0%) 103/511 (20.2%)  
  Transplant 4/536 (0.7%) 1/511 (0.2%)  
  Trauma 0/536 (0.0%) 2/511 (0.4%)  
Operative admission diagnosis    
  Cardiovascular 131/193 (67.9%) 137/218 (62.8%) 0.256
  Genitourinary 3/193 (1.6%) 1/218 (0.5%)  
  Gastrointestinal 39/193 (20.2%) 57/218 (26.1%)  
  Neurologic 3/193 (1.6%) 4/218 (1.8%)  
  Respiratory 3/193 (1.6%) 5/218 (2.3%)  
  Transplant 7/193 (3.6%) 2/218 (0.9%)  
  Trauma 7/193 (3.6%) 12/218 (5.5%)  
Plasma urea (mmol/L) 23.7 (13.8) 23.3 (11.7) 0.542
Creatinine at randomization (μmol/L) 369 (231) 300 (142) <0.001
pH 7.2 (0.1) 7.3 (0.1) <0.001
Bicarbonate (mmol/L) 17.1 (5.8) 19.5 (5.6) <0.001
Base excess (mEql/L) −9.7 (6.9) −6.9 (6.7) <0.001
  1. Continuous variables expressed as mean with standard deviation in brackets. Nominal variables expressed as number with percentage in brackets. SOFA, sequential organ failure score; RRT, renal replacement therapy; MV, mechanical ventilation; APACHE, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.