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Table 1 Physicochemical characteristics of available resuscitation fluid preparations

From: Fluid therapy in patients with brain injury: what does physiology tell us?

  Colloid Specific gravity (g/ml) H2O content Osmotic coefficient Theoretical osmolarity (mosmol/l) Real osmolalitya(mosmol/kg) Tonicity
Plasma Proteins 1.0258 0.940 0.926 291 287 Isotonic
NaCl 0.9% None 1.0062 0.997 0.926 308 286 Isotonic
Dextrose 5% None 1.0197 0.970 1.013 278 290 Isotonic (only in vitro)b
Ringer’s lactate None   0.997 0.926 276 256 Hypotonic
Ringer’s acetate None   0.997 0.926 276 256 Hypotonic
Plasmalyte® None   0.997 0.926 294 273 Hypotonic
Sterofundin® ISO/Isofundin®/Ringerfundin®d None   0.997 0.926 309 287c Isotonic
Voluven® 6% 6% HES 130/0.4 1.0274 0.958 0.926 308 298 Hypertonic (slightly)
Volulyte® 6% 6% HES 130/0.4 1.0274 0.956 0.926 287 278 Hypotonic (slightly)
Venofundin® 6% 6% HES 130/0.42 1.0257 0.957 0.926 308 298 Hypertonic (slightly)
Tetraspan® 6% 6% HES 130/0.42 1.0257 0.955 0.926 296 292b Isotonic
Gelafundin® 4% 4% polygeline 1.0177 0.969 0.926 274 262 Hypotonic
Gelafundin® ISO 4% 4% polygeline   0.969 0.926 284 271 Hypotonic
Albumex® 4% 4% human albumin   0.958 0.926 269 260 Hypotonic
Alburex® 5% 5% human albumin   0.948 0.926 281 274.5 Hypotonic (slightly)
  1. aOsmolality reflects the calculated, nominal osmolality (as calculated from osmolarity, water content and osmotic coefficient). bSince glucose is quickly metabolized and moved to the intracellular compartment, dextrose solutions behave severely hypotonic in vivo. cConsidering that one malate anion is metabolized to two hydrogen carbonate anions. dSterofundin ISO, Isofundin and Ringerfundin represent different labels for equivalent solutions. HES, hydroxyethyl starch. Modified from Physioklin [19].