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Table 1 Patient characteristics and outcome for normal- and low-muscle area patient group

From: Low skeletal muscle area is a risk factor for mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients

  Normal muscle-area patients n = 88 Low muscle-area patients n = 152 All patients N = 240 Fisher exact test or student t-test, -value
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD  
Female gender, % 40   39   39   0.892
Age, y 52.3 19.0 63.6 15.7 59.5 17.8 <0.001
APACHE II score 21.7 8.6 24.4 7.7 23.4 8.1 0.013
Weight, kg 80.2 15.6 73.6 15.1 76.0 15.6 0.001
Height, cm 174.4 9.7 173.0 9.5 173.5 9.5 0.281
BMI, kg/m2 26.3 4.3 24.4 4.1 25.1 4.2 0.001
Muscle mass, kg 22.0 4.2 16.6 3.6 18.6 4.6 <0.001
Muscle index, cm2/m2 54.5 8.7 39.4 8.3 45.0 4.6 <0.001
Muscle area, cm2 167.1 35.8 119.1 30.2 136.7 39.8 <0.001
Admission diagnosis, %        
 Cardiovascular 5.7   14.5   11.2   0.009
 Metabolic/Renal 3.4   1.3   2.1 2 test)
 Neurologic 5.7   3.9   4.6
 Postresuscitation 3.4   2.0   2.5
 Postsurgery 26.1   34.2   31.2
 Respiratory insufficiency 9.1   15.8   13.3
 Sepsis 4.5   7.2   6.2
 Trauma 35.2   14.5   22.1
 Others 6.8   6.6   6.7
Length of ventilation, d (median; IQR) 15 8-28 13 8-23 14 8-25 0.387
ICU length of stay, d (median; IQR) 17 9-30 16 10-28 16 9-28 0.768
Hospital length of stay, d (median; IQR) 42 20-64 41 24-66 41 22-65 0.930
ICU mortality, % 10.2   23.7   18.8   0.010
28-d mortality, % 5.7   21.7   15.8   0.001
Hospital mortality, % 12.5   38.2   28.8   <0.001
Survivor analysis, n 77   93   170   
To nursing home, % 11.7   24.7   18.8   0.032
  1. APACHE, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation; BMI, Body mass index; IQR, interquartile range.