Effects of Ringer-saline (RS) and Ringer-lactate (RL) on kidney injury parameters after shock. Rats were subjected to moderate or severe hemorrhage (shock induction: dark gray; shock phase: light gray) and then resuscitated (dark gray) with Ringer-saline (RS) or Ringer-lactate (RL). Blood creatinine concentration was measured continuously throughout the experiment and recorded at the time points indicated until the end of the experiment or until the first of the animals of the comparison groups died. Blood gas analysis was performed at distinct time points, with T = 280 minutes representing the last possible point of comparison. Values are presented as the means ± SEM (n = 8 animals per shock group, n = 6 sham group animals). SEM values that are not visible are located behind the symbols. One-way repeated-measures ANOVA and Fisher’s Least Significant Difference (LSD) post-hoc test were performed. * P <0.05 (vs. all other shock groups).