Effects of Ringer-saline (RS) and Ringer-lactate (RL) on liver damage parameters after shock. Rats were subjected to moderate or severe hemorrhage (shock induction: dark gray; shock phase: light gray) and then resuscitated (dark gray) with either Ringer-saline (RS) or Ringer-lactate (RL). Blood AST and ALT concentrations (A, B) were measured continuously throughout the experiment and recorded at the indicated time points until either the end of the experiment or the first of the animals of the comparison groups died. Blood gas analysis was performed at specific time points, with T = 280 minutes representing the last possible point of comparison. Values are presented as the means ± SEM (n = 8 animals per shock group, n = 6 sham group animals). SEM values that are not visible are located behind the symbols. One-way repeated-measures ANOVA and Fisher’s Least Significant Difference (LSD) post-hoc test were performed. * P <0.05 (vs. severe shock/RS group).