Effects of Ringer-saline (RS) and Ringer-lactate (RL) on the acid–base equilibrium and pO
after shock. Rats were subjected to moderate or severe hemorrhage (shock induction: dark gray; shock phase: light gray), resuscitated (dark gray) with either Ringer-saline (RS) or Ringer-lactate (RL), and observed until the end of the experiment or until the first of the animals of the comparison groups died. Blood gas analysis was performed at distinct time intervals, with T = 280 minutes representing the last possible point of comparison. The following parameters were determined in arterial blood samples at the indicated time points: (A) blood pH, (B) base excess, (C) CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) and (D) O2 partial pressure (pO2). Values are presented as the means ± SEM (n = 8 animals per shock group, n = 6 sham group animals). SEM values that are not visible are located behind the symbols. *P <0.05 (vs. all other shock groups), # P <0.05 (vs. severe shock/RS group).