Effects of Ringer-saline (RS) and Ringer-lactate (RL) on blood pressure and heart rate after shock. Rats were subjected to moderate or severe hemorrhage (shock induction: dark gray; shock phase: light gray), resuscitated (dark gray) with either Ringer-saline (RS) or Ringer-lactate (RL), and observed until the end of the experiment or until the first animal of each comparison group died. (A) Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and (B) heart rate (HR; bpm, beats per minute). The results are shown as the mean values ± SEM (n = 8 animals per shock group, n = 6 sham group animals). SEM values that are not visible are located behind the symbols. One-way repeated-measures ANOVA with Fisher’s Least Significant Difference (LSD) post-hoc test were performed with * P <0.05 (vs. all other shock groups); # P <0.05 (vs. severe shock groups).