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Table 1 Cardiorenal syndrome classification system

From: Heart–kidney crosstalk and role of humoral signaling in critical illness

Classification Abbreviation Characteristic
Acute cardiorenal syndrome CRS type 1 Abrupt worsening of cardiac function leading to acute kidney injury; for example, acute coronary syndrome causing acute heart failure and then renal dysfunction
Chronic cardiorenal syndrome CRS type 2 Chronic abnormalities in cardiac function causing progressive chronic kidney disease; for example, congestive cardiac failure
Acute renocardiac syndrome CRS type 3 Sudden worsening of renal function causing acute cardiac dysfunction; for example, uremic cardiomyopathy secondary to acute renal failure
Chronic renocardiac syndrome CRS type 4 Condition of primary chronic kidney disease leading to an impairment of the cardiac function and/or increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events; for example, left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic heart failure secondary to renal failure
Secondary cardiorenal syndrome CRS type 5 Systemic disorders causing both cardiac and renal dysfunction; for example, septic shock, vasculitis
  1. CRS, cardiorenal syndrome.