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Table 3 Primary and secondary outcomes

From: Early fluid resuscitation with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (6%) in severe burn injury: a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial

Outcome HES (n = 23) Lactated Ringer’s (n = 22) Difference P value
Primary outcome     
Total volume at days 1–3, mL    −1,213 (95% CI −3,975 to 1,549) 0.39
Secondary outcomes     
Creatinine at day 1, μmol/L 77 (66, 99) 74 (55, 90)   
Creatinine at days 1–3, μmol/L    0.4 (95% CI −18.7 to 19.5) 0.97
Urinary output at day 1, mL/d 1,360 (1,020, 1,770) 1,430 (970, 2,225)   
Urinary output at days 1–3, mL    −58 (95% CI −400 to 283) 0.90
Incidence of ARDS 6 (26.1%) 6 (27.3%)   
Risk ratio for ARDS with HES    0.96 (95% CI 0.35 to 2.64) 0.95
28-day mortality 4 (17.4%) 4 (18.2%)   
Risk ratio for 28-day mortality with HES    0.96 (95% CI 0.27 to 4.45) 0.95
In hospital mortality 8 (34.8%) 5 (22.7%)   
Hazard ratio for in-hospital death with HES    1.86 (95% CI 0.56 to 6.19) 0.31
Length of stay in ICU, days 28 (10, 58) 24 (11, 49)   0.80
Length of stay in hospital, days 31 (18, 58) 29 (14, 61)   0.57
  1. Data are represented as median (25th and 75th percentiles) or number of patients (percentage) or risk ratio (confidence interval) or hazard ratio (confidence intervals, or CIs). For total volume, creatinine, and urinary output over days 1–3, absolute values with original units (confidence intervals) are depicted. ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; HES, hydroxyethyl starch; ICU, intensive care unit.