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Table 2 Hemodynamic, oxygen and ventilatory parameters

From: Persistently high venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide differences during early resuscitation are associated with poor outcomes in septic shock

Variable Group 1, H-H Group 2, L-H Group 3, H-L Group 4, L-L P value
(n= 24) (n= 8) (n= 17) (n= 36)
Hemodynamic variables
Heart rate (beats/minute)      
 T0 112 (103 to 129) 111 (77 to 138) 104 (86 to 126) 109 (93 to 118) 0.31
 T6 114 (101 to 125) 103 (73 to 127) 98 (85 to 114) 103 (88 to 118) 0.14
Cardiac index (l/minute/m2)      
 T0 3.0 (2.3 to 4.2) 3.6 (2.7 to 4.6) 3.0 (2.5 to 5.0) 3.5 (2.7 to 4.5) 0.63
 T6 3.2 (2.2 to 4.3) 3.3 (2.4 to 3.8) 3.7 (2.2 to 5.5) 3.6 (2.8 to 4.3) 0.75
MAP (mmHg)      
 T0 65.0 (61.0 to 72.8)** 67.0 (65.3 to 69.5) 73.0 (68.0 to 82.5)** 72.0 (64.5 to 77.0) 0.02
 T6 69.0 (65.3 to 75.8) 77.5 (70.5 to 96.0) 68.0 (63.5 to 72.0) 71.5 (65.0 to 78.8) 0.06
CVP (mmHg)      
 T0 14.5 (10.3 to 17.0) 10.0 (9.0 to 12.8) 12.0 (8.5 to 15.0) 10.0 (7.0 to 14.0) 0.10
 T6 13.5 (10.0 to 15.8)** 15.0 (10.0 to 17.0) 10.0 (5.0 to 12.5)** 10.0 (7.3 to 13.0) 0.03
PAOP (mmHg)      
 T0 17.0 (14.0 to 20.0) 12.5 (10.0 to 15.0) 17.0 (12.0 to 22.0) 15.0 (11.0 to 20.0) 0.52
 T6 19.0 (15.0 to 24.0)** 14.5 (10.0 to 19.0) 13.0 (10.0 to 15.0)** 16.0 (12.0 to 20.0) 0.03
Blood gases and oxygen variables
pH      
 T0 7.30 (7.18 to 7.37) 7.31 (7.22 to 7.40) 7.34 (7.22 to 7.41) 7.32 (7.24 to 7.40) 0.85
 T6 7.32 (7.20 to 7.36) 7.35 (7.30 to 7.42) 7.35 (7.26 to 7.39) 7.34 (7.30 to 7.39) 0.33
PaCO2 (mmHg)      
 T0 30.5 (24.1 to 36.6) 34.2 (24.7 to 36.9) 31.0 (23.6 to 33.6) 27.5 (23.7 to 36.5) 0.81
 T6 26.1 (22.4 to 32.7) 31.0 (21.6 to 34.0) 31.3 (26.8 to 33.6) 27.5 (21.7 to 32.1) 0.25
PvmCO2 (mmHg)      
 T0 40.6 (33.9 to 46.5) 29.5 (25.0 to 35.3) 39.7 (35.5 to 47.1) 34.3 32.8 (27.3 to 40.9) 0.03
 T6 38.0 (29.9 to 39.7) 38.3 (28.0 to 46.2) (30.4 to 36.8) 30.0 (25.5 to 35.5) 0.02
PvcCO2 (mmHg)      
 T0 38.2 (29.1 to 50.5) 40.1 (34.2 to 43.4) 36.7 (35.5 to 47.1) 33.9 32.5 (28.1 to 38.4) 0.12
 T6 33.7 (28.3 to 36.9) 33.8 (31.4 to 41.4) (30.4 to 36.8) 29.0 (25.1 to 35.8) 0.20
PaO2 (mmHg)      
 T0 112.2 (79.3 to 167.3) 117.1 (77.5 to 139.5) 115.7 (81.4 to 140.8) 100 (86.0 to 123.9) 0.70
 T6 113.6 (83.0 to 147.3) 132.5 (109.8 to 197.8) 105.0 (83.5 to 127.4) 111.5 (86.2 to 135.7) 0.34
PaO2/FiO2 (mmHg)      
 T0 188.9 (117.1 to 265.0) 166.9 (143.8 to 244.1) 233.7 (184.6 to 314.0) 214.3 (141.6 to 368.0) 0.28
 T6 177.9 (136.4 to 298.4) 265.0 (185.5 to 383.5) 239.3 (185.1 to 306.3) 253.5 (181.6 to 368.0) 0.17
Lactate (mmol/l)      
 T0 4.3 (2.0 to 7.9) 2.9 (2.0 to 9.7) 2.7 (1.5 to 3.9) 2.9 (1.7 to 4.7) 0.16
 T6 3.3 (2.1 to 6.8)** 2.9 (1.1 to 7.1) 1.3 (0.9 to 2.3)** 2.0 (1.0 to 3.5) 0.002
ScvO2 (%)      
 T0 64.0 (54.7 to 75.1) 66.8 (59.7 to 74.5) 73.0 (70.8 to 76.7) 67.1 (62.1 to 75.9) 0.36
 T6 70.8 (66.4 to 73.5) 73.4 (69.3 to 78.0) 72.3 (67.2 to 75.9) 76.0 (60.0 to 77.9) 0.53
SvO2 (%)      
 T0 66.0 (56.8 to 71.4) 68.0 (54.9 to 81.0) 68.1 (57.0 to 71.0) 69.7 (62.1 to 75.9) 0.39
 T6 69.0 (63.3 to 72.9) 70.6 (63.4 to 73.8) 71.2 (64.4 to 75.1) 68.0 (58.7 to 74.3) 0.77
Oxygen extraction ratio      
 T0 34.7 (28.3 to 44.3) 30.8 (22.7 to 38.4) 29.4 (25.0 to 36.8) 30.7 (24.9 to 37.5) 0.36
 T6 29.8 (26.4 to 36.6) 30.2 (24.9 to 31.3) 29.3 (24.1 to 33.3) 30.7 (23.4 to 39.3) 0.68
Pv-aCO2 (mmHg)      
 T0 8.2 (7.0 to 10.6)* 1.4 (1.1 to 5.3)*φ 6.3 (6.1 to 7.2)φξ 2.7 (2.0 to 4.0) ξ <0.001
 T6 7.6 (6.4 to 9.4)** 8.6 (6.5 to 11.7)φΨ 3.5 (0.9 to 4.3)**φ 3.3 (2.2 to 4.1) Ψ <0.001
Pvc-aCO2 (mmHg)      
 T0 9.7 (7.0 to 12.1) 4.6 (3.3 to 6.1) 7.3 (4.6 to 9.1) 4.4 (2.7 to 5.4) <0.001
 T6 7.0 (5.8 to 9.7) 8.5 (5.6 to 9.6)Ψ 4.4 (2.1 to 5.5) 4.0 (1.7 to 5.4)Ψ 0.003
Ventilatory parameters
Mechanical ventilation      
 T0 24 5 11 23 0.01
 T6 24 5 11 23 0.01
PEEP (mmHg), n    5.0 (5.0 to 8.0), 11 6.0 (5.0 to 8.0), 23 0.48
 T0 6.0 (5.0 to 8.0), 24 5.0 (5.0 to 6.0), 5 5.0 (5.0 to 8.0), 11 8.0 (5.0 to 10.0), 23  
 T6 6.5 (5.0 to 8.0), 24 5.0 (5.0 to 7.5), 5    
Tidal volume (ml/kg)      
 T0 7.1 (6.3 to 7.7) 7.3 (6.3 to 7.6), 5 7.0 (6.5 to 8.0), 11 7.5 (6.6 to 8.0), 23 0.65
 T6 7.2 (6.3 to 7.9) 7.2 (6.6 to 7.6), 5 7.5 (6.8 to 8.0), 11 7.5 (6.9 to 8.0), 23 0.65
  1. Data presented as mean (25 to 75% interquartile range). CVP, central venous pressure; FiO2, oxygen inspired fraction; MAP, mean arterial pressure; PaCO2, arterial carbon dioxyde pressure; PaO2, arterial oxygen pressure; PAOP, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure; PEEP, positive end-expiratory pressure; Pv-aCO 2 , mixed venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference; Pvc-aCO 2 , central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference; PvcCO 2 , central venous carbon dioxide pressure; PvmCO 2 , mixed venous carbon dioxide pressure; ScvO 2 , central venous oxygen saturation; SvO 2 , mixed venous oxygen saturation; T0, time 0; T6, 6 hours after Time 0. *P <0.05 for Groups 1 vs. 2; **P <0.05 for Groups 1 vs. 3; P <0.05 for Groups 1 vs. 4; φP <0.05 for Groups 2 vs. 3; ΨP <0.05 for Groups 2 vs. 4; and ξP <0.05 for Groups 3 vs. 4.