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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Persistently high venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide differences during early resuscitation are associated with poor outcomes in septic shock

Variable Group 1, H-H Group 2, L-H Group 3, H-L Group 4, L-L P value
(n= 24) (n= 8) (n= 17) (n= 36)
Age (years) 63.0 (54.7 to 75.0) 63.5 (50.5 to 76.5) 55.0 (53.0 to 76.0) 62.0 (49.3 to 71.8) 0.83
Gender, male (%) 17 (70.8) 4 (50.0) 10 (58.8) 22 (61.1) 0.72
APACHE II 24.4 (21.2 to 26.0) 25.2 (21.0 to 27.0) 23.4 (21.2 to 25.6) 24.8 (22.2 to 25.8) 0.11
Time between diagnosis and catheter insertion (T0) 2.0 (2.0 to 4.0) 1.0 (1.0 to 3.3) 3.0 (1.0 to 4.0) 3.0 (2.0 to 4.0) 0.44
Fluids received before catheter insertion 2,039 (1,343 to 2,834) 1,934 (849 to 4,575) 2,500 (1,430 to 3,628) 2,000 (1,025 to 3,153) 0.76
Temperature (°C) 37.5 (37.2 to 37.9) 37.4 (37.1 to 37.9) 37.6 (37.0 to 38.0) 37.4 (37.4 to 37.8) 0.74
Hemoglobin (g/dl) 9.4 (8.7 to 11.6) 8.8 (7.4 to 11.4) 9.8 (9.1 to 11.4) 9.9 (9.1 to 11.4) 0.47
Source of infection, n (%)      
 Pneumonia 9 3 4 10
 Abdominal 8 4 6 14
 Urinary 2 1 3 4
 Soft tissue 2 0 1 2
 No specific site 3 0 2 4
 Other 0 0 1 2
Culture positive, n (%) 20 (83.3) 5 (62.5) 12 (70.6) 19 (52.8) 0.11
Antibiotics given at T0, n (%) 24 (100) 7 (87.5) 16 (94.1) 32(88.9) 0.38
Antibiotics adequate, n (%) 23 (95.8) 7 (87.5) 16 (94.1) 27 (75.0) 0.10
Hydrocortisone, n (%) 22 (91.7) 8 (100) 15 (88.2) 31 (86.1) 0.68
Transfusion RBC, n (%) 4 (16.7) 3 (37.5) 3 (17.6) 4 (11.1) 0.35
Fluids and vasoactive agents
Fluids (ml), IQ 25 to 75      
 T0 2,039 (1,343 to 2,834) 1,934 (849 to 4,575) 2,500 (1,430 to 3,628) 2,000 (1,025 to 3,153) 0.76
 T6 4,733 (3,196 to 6,360) 4,082 (1,576 to 7,584) 4,845 (2,550 to 6,560) 4,673 (3,380 to 7,348) 0.83
Norepinephrine (μg/kg/minute), IQ 25 to 75, n      
 T0 0.25 (0.19 to 0.36), 24 0.29 (0.14 to 1.20), 6 0.19 (0.10 to 0,37), 16 0.23 (0.10 to 0.38), 30 0.81
 T6 0.20 (0.11 to 0.40), 24 0.36 (0.09 to 0.49), 6 0.12 (0.11 to 0.18), 15 0.19 (0.08 to 0.39), 31 0.45
Dopamine (μg/kg/minute), IQ 25 to 75, n      
 T0 7.1 (7.1 to 7.3), 2 10.7 (10.7 to 10.7), 1 5.1 (2.8 to 6.6), 5 0.14
 T6 8.0 (8.0 to 8.0), 1 5.3 (2.5 to 6.4), 4 0.16
Dobutamine (μg/kg/minute), IQ 25 to 75, n      
 T0 3.1 (2.7 to 4.5), 5 5.9 (5.1 to 6.7), 2 3.3 (3.0 to 4.2), 3 0.15
 T6 3.1 (2.7 to 5.6), 3 5.1 (4.7 to 6.3), 4 3.8 (3.3 to 4.8), 3 0.21
  1. H-H, venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference (Pv-aCO2) high at T0 and T6; L-H, Pv-aCO2 normal at T0 and high at T6; H-L, Pv-aCO2 high at T0 and normal at T6; and L-L, Pv-aCO2 normal at T0 and T6. APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; IQ 25 to 75, 25 to 75% interquartile range; RBC, red blood cells; T0, time 0; T6, 6 hours after Time 0.