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Table 1 Descriptive data of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery in the full cohort and matched cohort

From: Post-operative acute kidney injury and five-year risk of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke among elective cardiac surgical patients: a cohort study

   Full cohort Matched cohort
  Totala AKIa non-AKIa AKIa non-AKIa
Clinical features n = 1,030 n = 287 n = 743 n = 257 n = 257
Pre-operative characteristics      
Male gender 750 (72.8) 209 (72.8) 541 (72.8) 190 (73.9) 189 (73.5)
Age (years), mean (IQR) 65.8 (59 to 75) 70.0 (64 to 78) 64.1 (58 to 73) 69.4 (63 to 77) 69.3 (65 to 76)
Smoker      
Present 487 (47.3) 147 (51.2) 340 (45.8) 130 (50.6) 129 (50.2)
Never 357 (34.7) 88 (30.7) 269 (36.2) 82 (31.9) 83 (32.3)
Previous 186 (18.1) 52 (18.1) 134 (18.0) 45 (17.5) 45 (17.5)
BMI (kg/m2)      
<25 287 (27.9) 85 (29.6) 202 (27.2) 72 (28.0) 63 (24.5)
25 to 30 425 (41.3) 110 (38.3) 315 (42.4) 103 (40.0) 100 (38.9)
>30 318 (30.9) 92 (32.1) 226 (30.4) 82 (31.9) 94 (36.6)
Previous ischemic peripheral disease 57 (5.5) 19 (6.6) 38 (5.1) 17 (6.6) 13 (5.1)
Previous stroke 104 (10.1) 37 (12.9) 67 (9.0) 32 (12.5) 29 (11.3)
Previous myocardial infarction 256 (24.9) 66 (23.0) 190 (25.6) 63 (24.5) 65 (25.3)
History of arrhythmias 154 (15.0) 60 (20.9) 94 (12.7) 49 (19.1) 51 (19.8)
Diabetes mellitus 166 (16.1) 58 (20.2) 108 (14.5) 50 (19.5) 55 (21.4)
Dyslipidemia 570 (55.3) 156 (54.3) 414 (55.7) 141 (54.9) 147 (57.2)
Hypertension 585 (56.8) 166 (57.8) 419 (56.4) 146 (56.8) 153 (59.5)
Normal <140 and <90b 455 (44.2) 121 (42.2) 324 (43.6) 111 (43.2) 104 (40.5)
Grade I 140 to 159 or 90 to 99b 306 (29.7) 80 (27.9) 226 (31.4) 70 (27.2) 91 (23.7)
Grade II 160 to 179 or 100 to 109b 189 (18.4) 61 (21.3) 128 (17.2) 56 (21.8) 42 (16.3)
Grade III > =180 or > =110b 90 (8.7) 25 (8.7) 65 (8.8) 20 (7.8) 20 (7.8)
Charlson comorbidity index      
Low (score 0) 396 (38.5) 91 (31.7) 305 (41.5) 86 (33.5) 91 (35.0)
Medium (score 1 to 2) 456 (44.3) 135 (47.0) 321 (43.2) 119 (46.3) 112 (43.6)
High (score >3) 178 (17.3) 61 (21.3) 117 (15.7) 52 (20.2) 54 (21.0)
Baseline creatinine (μmol/L), mean (IQR) 85.0 (68 to 98) 94.2 (73 to 109) 81.4 (66 to 92) 90.9 (72 to 107) 91.3 (73 to 105)
euroSCORE, mean (IQR)c 5.2 (3 to 7) 6.4 (4 to 8) 4.7 (3 to 7) 6.1 (4 to 8) 6.1 (4 to 8)
Low risk (score 0 to 2) 199 (19.3) 30 (10.5) 169 (22.8) 30 (11.7) 28 (10.9)
Medium risk (score >2 to 5) 369 (35.8) 82 (28.6) 287 (38.6) 78 (30.4) 81 (31.5)
High risk (score >5) 462 (44.9) 175 (70.0) 287 (38.6) 149 (58.0) 148 (57.6)
Surgical procedure characteristics      
Type of surgery      
Valved 313 (30.4) 84 (29.3) 229 (30.8) 77 (30.0) 78 (30.4)
CABG 372 (36.1) 85 (29.6) 287 (38.6) 80 (31.1) 71 (27.6)
Valve and CABG 158 (15.3) 59 (20.6) 99 (13.3) 51 (19.8) 54 (17.1)
Othere 187 (18.2) 59 (20.6) 128 (17.2) 49 (19.1) 54 (17.1)
Extra corporal circulation 910 (88.4) 255 (88.9) 655 (88.2) 227 (88.3) 223 (86.8)
  1. aValues are expressed as counts (percentage) unless otherwise indicated.
  2. bMeasured in mmHg.
  3. cEuroSCORE: A risk score for the operative mortality.
  4. dValve: Aorta, mitral, tricuspidal.
  5. eOther: Pulmonary valve surgery, coarctatio, subvalvular membrane, ventricular aneurysme, ventricular septum defect, atrial septum defect, pulmonary thromboendatrerectomi, thoracic aorta.
  6. AKI, Acute Kidney Injury; BMI, Body Mass Index; CABG, Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting; IQR, Interquartile Range.