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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Procalcitonin-guided therapy in intensive care unit patients with severe sepsis and septic shock – a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Annane et al. 2013[26] Bouadma et al. 2010[27] Hochreiter et al. 2009[28] Jensen et al. 2011[29] Nobre et al. 2008[30] Schroeder et al. 2009[31] Svoboda et al. 2007[32]
Design RCT RCT RCT RCT RCT RCT RCT
Setting Surgical and medical ICU Surgical and medical ICU Surgical ICU Surgical and medical ICU Surgical and medical ICU Surgical ICU Surgical ICU
Condition Severe sepsis and septic shock Septic shock Severe sepsis Severe sepsis and septic shock Severe sepsis and septic shock Severe sepsis Severe sepsis
Total number of included patients 61 267 110 459 79 27 72
Number of patients        
PCT group/control group 31/30 138/129 (septic shock) 57/53 247/212 39/40 14/13 38/34
55/53 (positive blood culture)
Hospital mortality        
Relative risk (95% CI) 0.68 (0.30; 1.55) NA 1.00 (0.53; 1.86) NA 1.03 (0.46; 2.31) 0.93 (0.23; 3.81) NA
Events PCT group/events control group 7/10 15/14 9/9 3/3
28-day mortality        
Relative risk (95% CI) NA 1.15 (0.81; 1.63) NA 1.02 (0.80; 1.30) 1.03 (0.43; 2.46) NA 0.69 (0.35; 1.36)
Events PCT group/events control group 48/39 (septic shock) 90/76 8/8 10/13
Duration of antibiotic treatment, days        
PCT group/control group 5/5 (median) 9.8/12.8 (mean) (only positive blood culture) 5.9/7.9 (mean) NA 6.0/9.5 (median) 6.6/8.3 (mean) NA
Length of ICU stay, days        
PCT group/control group 22/23 (median) NA 15.5/17.7 (mean) 6.0/5.0 (median) 4.0/7.0 (median) 16.4/16.7 (mean) 16.1/19.4 (mean)
Length of hospital stay, days        
PCT group/control group 27/33 (median) NA NA 23.0/22.0 (median) 17.0/23.5 (median) NA NA
SOFA score        
PCT group/control group 9.5/10 (median) NA 6.7/7.0 (mean) NA 6.4/6.6 (mean) 7.3/8.3 (mean) 7.9/9.3 (mean)
8.5 to 11/8 to 11 (IQR) 3.68/3.62 (SD) 3.3/3.0 (SD) 3.5/4.2 (SD) 2.8/3.3 (SD)
Medical patients, %* 97% 89% 0% 59% NA 0% 0%
Subgroup of study No Yes No Yes No No No
Duration of study, months 36 12 15 29 15 7 29
Study protocol available Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Country France France Germany Denmark Switzerland Germany Czech Republic
  1. PCT, procalcitonin; RCT, randomized controlled clinical trial; SOFA, sequential organ failure assessment; NA, data were not available; *data were stated in study or calculated from information given in study.